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Key writings of 
Raphael Lemkin
on Genocide

Quick Guide to the Series


Last revised
13 November


Key Writings of
Raphael Lemkin
on Genocide

As part of our activities to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959) and to further educational activities for preventing genocide, Prevent Genocide International presents this series of Dr. Lemkin's writings on genocide.  The collection spans the years from 1933-1947 and includes items Lemkin wrote in French, German and English - as well as translations in Spanish.

People often use the Internet to find the latest information on a topic, yet for a greater understanding of an issue such as prevention of genocide it is importent to examine the past. 
This series is a resource for all who want to understand the origins of the concept of genocide and efforts to have genocide recognized as an international crime.  As a body of writing, the series "Key writings of  Raphael Lemkin on Genocide" will provide students, scholars, teachers, activists and others with a resource for reference and further study. 
Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959)

Volunteers around the world have worked to locate these documents and transform them from printed pages into electronic texts. We are especially pleased with efforts to translate articles into new languages, making the series available to a larger number of people. 

If you find the "Key writings of  Raphael Lemkin on Genocide" series useful to you, we ask that you contact our office by email, or by other means.  Especially if you can help us translate more articles, or review and check the translations of other volunteers, please contact us. 

Prevent Genocide International exists only as a network of volunteers. This website and the our global network exist only through the time and talents and financial support of people located all around the world. Please contact us if you can help us in our educational efforts for the prevention of genocide. 

Key writings of 
Raphael Lemkin
on Genocide

Quick Guide to the Series


1933: 'General (Transnational) Danger'
1944: Axis Rule in Occupied Europe
1945: 'Genocide: A Modern Crime'
1946: 'The Crime of Genocide'
1947: 'Genocide as a Crime under International Law'

Chronology of the Life of
Raphael Lemkin

Bibliography of Writings by
Raphael Lemkin

"Les actes constituant un danger general (interétatique) consideres comme delites des droit des gens"
  Expilications additionelles au Rapport spécial présentè à la V-me Conférence pour l'Unification du Droit Penal à Madrid (14-2O.X.1933). 

This report was published by Paris law publisher A. Pedone (13, Rue Soufflot) as part of the Librarie de la cour d'appel ed de l'order de advocates.

English translation:  "Acts Constituting a General (Transnational) Danger considered as Crimes under International Law" Translation by James T.Fussell

"Akte der Barbarei und des Vandalismus als delicta juris gentium" (Acts of Barbarism and Vandalism under the Law of Nations), Anwaltsblatt Internationales, Vienna,Vol. 19, No. 6, (Nov. 1933), p. 117-119 
Lemkin wrote this German language article as an abbreviated version of the report 'General (Transnational) Danger' he originally presented in French at the 5th Conference for the Unification of Penal Law in Madrid, Spain in October 1933. The article was published in Anwaltsblatt Internationales (Lawyer Gazette International), a legal monthly based in Vienna, Austria and edited by Dr. Rudolf Braun.
Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation - Analysis of Goverment - Proposals for Redress
, Washington, D.C.:  Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944, 670pp.

Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, published in November 1944, was the first place where the word "genocide" appeared in print.  Raphael Lemkin coined the new word "genocide" in 1943 both as a continuation of his 1933 Madrid proposal and as part of his analysis of German occupation policies in Europe.

French translation:  Le règne de l'Axe en Europe occupée, Le premier paragraphe de Chapitre IX: " Génocide " de Raphaël Lemkin, 1944

Spanish translation:  Las Reglas del Eje sobre la Europa Ocupada, Primer párrafo de Capítulo IX: " Genocide " de Raphael Lemkin, 1944. Translation by Carlos Mario Molina Arrubla, May 2000

"Genocide - A Modern Crime"  FREE WORLD (New York), Vol. 9, No. 4, (April 1945), p. 39-43 
This article is a summary for the general public of  the concepts and proposals Lemkin originally presented in Chapter 9: "GENOCIDE" of Axis Rule in Occupied Europe.  Free World was a wartime  "Non-Partisan Magazine devoted to the United Nations and Democracy."
"Genocide" American Scholar, Vol. 15, No. 2 (April 1946), p. 227-230 

"Le crime de génocide" La Documentation Francaise, 24 septembre 1946, Notes Documentaires et Etudes No 417 (Serie Textes et Documents. - L) 

Spanish translation:  "Genocidio"  Translation by Carlos Mario Molina Arrubla, August 1999

"Genocide as a Crime under International Law"
American Journal of International Law, Vol. 41, No. 1 (1947), p.145-151


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