Martin Shaw, War and genocide : organized killing in modern society, Malden, MA : Polity Press, June 2003.
A historical sociologist of war and global politics, with theoretical, empirical and political interests, Martin Shaw is the Professor of International Relations and Politics at the University of Sussex. His previous book is Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution (Cambridge University Press 2000). War and genocide inlcudes the following chapters: War and slaughter; Genocide as a form of war(availbale online on Shaw's website); Organizing violence; Producing destruction; Thinking war; Killing spaces; Combatants and participants; Victims; Movements; Just peace Episodes The trenches; The Armenian genocide; Stalinism's mass murders; Nazism, war and the Holocaust; Japan's genocidal wars; Allied strategic bombing; Nuclear war-preparation; The Cambodian genocide; Genocidal war in Yugoslavia; War and genocide in Rwanda; The new Western way of war.
Errol P. Mendes & Ozay Mehmet, Global Governance, Economy and Law Waiting for Justice (Routledge, 2003), 272 pagesThis multi-disciplinary volume considers the moral, historical, legal, political and economic structures of global governance trends and institutions and their impact on the evolution of international legal standards. The impact of the global private sector on global governance, international legal standards and the emergence of corporate social responsibility regimes is also addressed in order to show how the institutions and realities of globalization that we are faced with today have been the result of convergence and conflict between fundamental values in these areas. Contents: Chapter 1. The 'Tragic Flaw' of Humanity Reflected in the United Nations and the Struggle for Human Rights Chapter 2. World Trade: For Whose Benefit? Chapter 3. Power and Responsibility: The Ethical and International Legal Duties of the Global Private Sector Chapter 4. From a-race-to-the-bottom to Social Justice in the Global Labour Market Chapter 5. The Failure of the International Financiel System and Paying for Upward Harmonization Chapter 6. Towards Global Pluralism Series Information: Routledge Studies in International Law 4 Author Biography: Errol Mendes is a Professor of Law at the University of Ottawa, Canada. His work focuses on globalization, corporate identity, international law, human rights and constitutional law. Ozay Mehmet is a Professor of International Affairs at Carleton University, Canada and a Visiting Professor of Economics at the Eastern Mediterranean University in Cyprus. His work focuses on labour economics, social justice and the impact of globalization on the most vulnerable workers in the global economy. "
David Hirsh, Law Against Genocide: Cosmopolitan Trials, (Cavendish Publishing Ltd. 2003)The book will appeal to students and scholars in international law and criminology, law and social theory, politics and sociology of globalization, social identities, racism, social and political theory and social memory; international relations and philosophy; genocide and Holocaust studies.www.cavendishpublishing.com
Eric D. Weitz, A century of genocide : utopias of race and nation, Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 2003.
Eric Weitz investigates four of the twentieth century's major eruptions of genocide: the Soviet Union under Stalin, Nazi Germany, Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, and the former Yugoslavia. Drawing on historical sources as well as trial records, memoirs, novels, and poems, Weitz explains the prevalence of genocide in the twentieth century--and shows how and why it became so systematic and deadly. Weitz depicts the searing brutality of each genocide and traces its origins back to those most powerful categories of the modern world: race and nation. He demonstrates how, in each of the cases, a strong state pursuing utopia promoted a particular mix of extreme national and racial ideologies. See http://pup.princeton.edu/titles/7491.html
Robin M. Williams Jr., The wars within : peoples and states in conflict, Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 2003.
Peter Balakian, The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's ResponseBalakian tells the parallel stories of the 20th century's first genocide and America's first international human rights movement. Drawing on hundreds of U.S. State Department documents, recently uncovered official Turkish military records, and the letters and memoirs of Armenian witnesses and Armenian survivors, Balakian presents vivid, detailed accounts of massacre, sexual violence, and deportations -- crimes that were meticulously planned and executed -- as well as extraordinary acts of activism, altruism, and heroism. With historical depth and narrative power, he traces the plight of the Armenian people and its effect on America from 1894 when Julia Ward Howe, then a revered voice of conscience in her seventies, launched an international relief effort for the Armenians, through the early 1920's, when the US officially abandoned its effort to take a mandate for Armenia or help bring Turkey to justice. THE BURNING TIGRIS closes with a chilling look at the Turkish government's persistent denial of its past crime of genocide -- and its impact on America. In order to stop US Congressional resolutions commemorating the Armenian Genocide, the Turkish government has continually threatened to close its air bases to US planes, including those near the Soviet and then the Iraqi border, and cancel weapons contracts with the United States. Not only did the Armenian Genocide set a precedent for the Holocaust, and compel Americans to respond in unprecedented ways to the call of human rights far from home, it was a landmark event in human rights law.
Victoria Sanford, Buried secrets : Truth and human rights in Guatemala, New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.Sanford examines political transformation through ethnographically detailed case studies of the exhumation of clandestine cemeteries of massacre victims, the excavation of collective memory, and the reconstruction of community among massacre survivors, refugees and displaced peoples. She traces political changes from the micro of political mobilization in relatively unknown rural villages to the macro level of national political events.http://www.nd.edu/~anthro/Sanford.html
Clark Taylor , (b. 1934). Return of Guatemala's refugees : reweaving the torn (Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1998) 228 p.On February 13, 1982, the Guatemalan army stormed into the remote northern Guatemala Ixcan village of Santa María Tzejá. The villagers had already fled in terror, but over the next six days seventeen of them, mostly women and children, were caught and massacred, animals were slaughtered, and the entire village was burned to the ground. Twelve years later, utilizing terms of refugee agreements reached in 1982, villagers from Santa María who had fled to Mexico returned to their homes and lands to re-create their community with those who had stayed in Guatemala. Return of Guatemala's Refugees tells the story of that process. In this moving and provocative book, Clark Taylor describes the experiences of the survivors-both those who stayed behind in conditions of savage repression and those who fled to Mexico where they learned to organize and defend their rights. Their struggle to rebuild is set in the wider drama of efforts by grassroots groups to pressure the government, economic elites, and army to fulfill peace accords signed in December of 1996. Focusing on the village of Santa María Tzejá, Taylor defines the challenges that faced returning refugees and their community. How did the opposing subcultures of fear (generated among those who stayed in Guatemala) and of education and human rights (experienced by those who took refuge in Mexico) coexist? Would the flood of international money sent to settle the refugees and fulfill the peace accords serve to promote participatory development or new forms of social control? How did survivors expand the space for democracy firmly grounded in human rights? How did they get beyond the grief and trauma that remained from the terror of the early eighties? Finally, the ultimate challenge, how did they work within conditions of extreme poverty to create a grassroots democracy in a militarized society?Contents Preface Introduction 1. Torn by Terror 2. Reweaving the Pieces: Culture of Fear/Culture of Learning 3. The Contextual Loom: The Peace Accords, Civil Society, and the Powerful 4. Clash of Patterns: From Mexico and Guatemala A Pictorial 5. Resources for Reweaving: The Perils of Development 6. Human Rights: The Color of Life 7. The Gray of Frozen Grief: Resolving the Trauma of Memory 8. Tearing Still? The Army in Peacetime 9. Weaving the Future: What Needs to Be Done and How To Get Involved Appendixes A. U.S. Groups Providing Resources on Guatemala and Support for the Peace Process B. Chronology of Guatemalan History C. Chronology of the Guatemalan Peace Process Acronyms Notes Bibliography IndexAbout the Author(s) Clark Taylor is Associate Professor of Latin-American Studies in the College of Public and Community Service, University of Massachusetts at Boston. He is also chair of the board of the National Coordinating Office on Refugees, Returnees and Displaced of Guatemala (NCOORD), and was a founding member of Witness for Peace's Guatemala Committee.
Patrick Brantlinger (b. 1941), Dark vanishings : discourse on the extinction of primitive races, 1800-1930, (Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 2003)
Barbara A. Mann (b. 1947), Native Americans, archaeologists & the mounds; foreword by Ward Churchill.(New York : P. Lang, 2003) , 520 p. :Contents: Foreword: indigenist scholarship at its finest / by Ward Churchill -- Introduction: on riding that undead horse of native discourse -- The "vulture culture": anthropology collects Native America -- The "slaughter" of the mounds: settler myths and despoliations -- "We can make a Waukauhoowaa": native traditions of the mounds -- Kokomthena, singing in the flames: sky-earth logic in the mounds -- Blabbermouth bones: NAGPRA, remythologized archaeology and documentary genocide -- Epilogue: strategies for Eastern Native Americans. Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. -493) and index. Subjects: United States. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.
Joshua M. Greene, Justice at Dachau : the trials of an American prosecutor ( William Dowdell Denson ), New York : Broadway Books, April 2003.An Alabama human rights lawyer, Denson was sent to Europe by the U.S. Army to prosecute Nazi butchers feigning innocence in the bloody aftermath of the Second World War. Joshua Greene was an editor with Shiva Kumar of the book Witness: Voices from the Holocaust which was published in 2000.
Richard G. Hovannisian, Editor, Looking Backward, Moving Forward: Confronting the Armenian Genocide, (Transaction Publishers; ; (February 2003) 296 pages www.transactionpub.com
Human Rights Watch, Lasting wounds : the human rights consequences of genocide and war for Rwanda`s children, New York, NY : Human Rights Watch, 2003.
Aidan Hartley, The Zanzibar Chest: A Story of Life, Love and Death in Foreign Lands (Grove Press, 2003)414 pages'We should have never come!' So said Aidan Hartley's father in his final days, rising from a bed made of mountain cedar, lashed with thongs of rawhide from an oryx shot many years before. His words spoke of a colonial legacy that stretched back over 150 years through four generations of one British family. From great-great-grandfather William Temple, who was awarded the Victoria Cross for his role in defending British settlements in nineteenth-century New Zealand, to his father, a colonial officer in Africa in the 1920s and a builder of dams in Arabia in the 1940s, the Hartleys were intrepid men who travelled to exotic lands to conquer, to build, and finally to bear witness. In The Zanzibar Chest, Hartley weaves together his family's history, his childhood in Africa and the dark world of the continent's horrendous wars, which he witnessed at first hand as a journalist in the 1990s. After the end of the Cold War, there seemed to be new hope for Africa but again and again-in Ethiopia, in Somalia, Rwanda and the Congo, terror and genocide prevailed. In Somalia, three of Hartley's close friends are torn to pieces by an angry mob. Then, after walking overland from Uganda with the rebel army, he saw the terrible atrocities in Rwanda, arriving at the sites and interviewing survivors just days after the massacres. Finally, burnt out from a decade of horror, he retreated to his family's house in Kenya, where he discovered the Zanzibar chest his father left him. Intricately hand-carved and smelling of camphor, the chest contained the diaries of his father's best friend, Peter Davey, an Englishman who died under mysterious circumstances more than fifty years earlier. Tucking the papers under his arm, Hartley embarked on a journey to southern Arabia in an effort not only to unlock the secrets of Davey's life, but of his own. He travelled to the remote mountains and deserts of southern Arabia where his father served as a British officer. He began to piece together the disparate elements of Davey's story, a man who fell in love with an Arabian princess and converted to Islam, but died tragically. At once a modern and a historic love story, The Zanzibar Chest is also an epic narrative charting the fates of men and women who interfered with, embraced and were ultimately transformed by twentieth-century Africa. www.thezanzibarchest.com
Takis Michas, Unholy Alliance: Greece and Milosevic's Serbia in the Nineties, Texas A&M University Press: Eastern European Studies (College Station, Tex.), 192 pThis is an account of the war in the Balkans during the 1990s. As the only member of NATO and the European Union to support Slobodan Milosevic's regime in the conflict following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Greece broke ranks with its western allies, frustrating their efforts to impose sanctions against Serbia. The work looks at Greek-Serbian relations and tackles the difficult question of how the Greek people could ignore Serbian aggression and war crimes. Journalistic accounts are combined with anecdotes and personal interviews to show a pattern of Greek support for Milosevic and Radovan Karadzic that implicates Greek politicians from all parties, as well as the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greek media, and ultimately the Greek people themselves. The evidence and conclusions presented aim to question the opinion that a new liberal order replaced the ideological standoff of the Cold War, but it will not surprise those who suspected that older allegiances have now claimed loyaties of many of the world's peoples."what seemed incomprehensible during the Bosnia and Kosovo wars was not so much that Greece sided with Serbia, but that it sided with Serbia's darkest side" (p. 4).These waves have not reached Greece, though, a country that was rejoicing after the "fall" of Srebrenica in July 1995 at the hands of Bosnian Serbs and their allies, Greek paramilitaries. The latter in fact raised the Greek flag in Srebrenica after its capture: for those who may try to contest this fact, a photo is provided (p. 22),Another revealing part of the Dutch report on Srebrenica is the reference to the support of the Bosnian Serb army by the Greek (alongside Israeli and Ukrainian) secret services which provided them with arms and ammunition. Michas' book makes this look even more credible when it reveals that NATO military secrets on the August 1995 air strikes were passed on to Mladic on direct orders of then socialist Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou: the author's source is none other than Papandreou's personal intermediary with Karadzic and Milosevic, the -then and now-President of Greek-Serbian Friendship Association, who was carrying out the mission (pp. 38-39)TAKIS MICHAS is a Greek journalist and author of books and articles on Greek political history and modern philosophy. .
Tom Gallagher (b. 1954), The Balkans after the Cold War : from tyranny to tragedy, London : Routledge, 2003.Contents: Challenges and crises after the communist era -- The international dimension of the escalating crisis in Yugoslavia -- The war in Croatia and the countdown to the Bosnian conflict, July 1991-May 1992 ---Genocide and dispossession in Bosnia and the international response -- The Bosnian endgame : survival amidst tragedy and international rancour -- International intervention in the Balkans 1995-7 : limited goals and capabilities -- Authoritarian rule in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: Yugoslavia--History--1980-1992. Yugoslav War, 1991-1995. Former Yugoslav republics--History.
Luisa Lang Owen (b. 1935), Casualty of war : a childhood remembered, foreword by Charles M. Barber, College Station : Texas A&M University Press, 2003, xxviii, 299 p.Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. xxi-xxiv). Subjects: Owen, Luisa Lang, 1935- Germans--Yugoslavia. Genocide--Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia--History--1945-1980.Anthologies and Essay Collectons,
Eve Garrard and Geoffrey Scarre, Editors, Moral Philosophy and the Holocaust, Ashgate Publishing Company; January 2003.
Robert Gellately and Ben Kiernan, editors, The specter of genocide : mass murder in historical perspective, New York : Cambridge University Press, May 2003.
Focusing on the twentieth century, this collection of essays by leading international experts offers an up-to-date, comprehensive history and analysis of multiple cases of genocide and genocidal acts. The book contains studies of the Armenian genocide; the victims of Stalinist terror; the Holocaust; and Imperial Japan. Contributors explore colonialism and address the fate of the indigenous peoples in Africa, North America, and Australia. In addition, extensive coverage of the post-1945 period includes the atrocities in the former Yugoslavia, Bali, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, East Timor, and Guatemala
Contents 1. Introduction Robert Gellately and Ben Kiernan Part I. Genocide and Modernity: 2. Twentieth century genocides: underlying ideological themes from Armenia to East Timor Ben Kiernan 3. The modernity of genocides: war, race, and revolution in the twentieth century Eric D. Weitz 4. Seeking the roots of modern genocide: on the macro- and micro-history of mass murder Omer Bartov 5. Genocide and the body politic in the time of modernity Marie Fleming Part II: Indigenous Peoples and Colonial Issues: 6. Indigenous peoples genocide: rhetoric of human rights Elazar Barkan 7. Military culture and the production of ‘final solutions’ in the colonies: the example of Wilhelminian Germany Isabel V. Hull 8. East Timor: counter-insurgency and genocide John G. Taylor Part III. The Era of the Two World Wars: 9. Under cover of war: the Armenian genocide in the context of total war Jay Winter 10. The mechanism of a mass crime: the ‘great terror’ in the Soviet Union, 1937–1938 Nicolas Werth 11. The third reich, the Holocaust and visions of serial genocide Robert Gellately 12. Reflections on modern Japanese history in the context of the concept of ‘genocide’ Gavan McCormack Part 4. Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1945: 13. ‘When the world turned to chaos’: 1965 and its aftermath in Bali, Indonesia Leslie Dwyer and Degung Santikarma 14. Genocide in Cambodia and Ethiopia Edward Kissi 15. Modern genocide in Rwanda: ideology, revolution, war, and mass murder in an African state Robert Melson 16. History, motive, law, intent: combining historical and legal methods in understanding Guatemala’s 1981–1983 genocide Greg Grandin 17. Analysis of a mass crime: ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia, 1991–1999 Jacques Semelin Conclusions: 18. The specter of genocide Robert Gellately and Ben Kiernan.
Michael V. Bhatia, War and intervention : issues for contemporary peace operations, Bloomfield, CT : Kumarian Press, Inc., March 2003.Contents: The United Nations: defining peace operations -- II. The United States: intervention in context -- A. The moral imperative or the national interest? -- B. Policy developments and guidelines -- Table 2.1: select U.S. doctrine for peace operations -- C. Recent debates -- III. The international environment: the diplomatic cost of achieving intervention -- IV. Conclusion -- 3. The operational environment: dissolution and globalization -- A. Intra-state vs. inter-state war -- I. On various causes of contemporary internal conflict -- A. Mobilizing combatants -- II. The structure and organization of armed movements -- A. Dissolution: the use of paramilitaries and militias -- B. Globalization: financing and supplying war -- A. The political economy of internal conflict -- B. The arms bazaar -- C. The criminalization of violence -- D. The privatisation of security -- C. Conclusion -- III. Alternative forms of competition and conflict -- A. Parallel government and social service provision -- B. Terror and psychological forms of violence -- C. Forced migration of populations and famine -- D. The manipulation of humanitarian aid -- The information tool: from propaganda to attack and intelligence -- IV. Conclusion -- 4. Contemporary peace operations: administering territory -- I. Achieving intervention: from sanctions to the use of force -- A. Airpower: operation allied force -- II. The intervention spectrum -- A. Peace agreements -- B. From colonial and military government to trusteeship and transitional administration -- A. National consultative bodies, elections and political reconstruction -- B. Municipal and district level administration -- C. The importance of local consultation and participation -- C. The multi-actor environment -- A. Multinational contingents -- B. International agencies and non-military actors -- C. Harmonizing the pillars of peace -- D. Reestablishing the rule of law: policing and the judiciary -- E. Peace, truth, justice and reconciliation? : war crimes tribunals and truth and reconciliation commissions -- F. Humanitarian relief and development: questioning the continuum -- G. Economic reconstruction -- III. Conclusion -- The military dimension: methods and emerging capabilities -- A. The use of force and the military threat -- B. The military's involvement in non-military tasks -- I. The United States and the revolution in military affairs -- A. Emphasizing the political -- A. Area expertise and psychological operations -- B. Training for peace operations -- B. U.S. defense realignment and emerging technologies -- II. Regional subcontracting -- A. EU rapid-reaction force/European security defense identity (ESDI) and national capabilities -- B. Constabulary units -- C. Economic Community of West African States, Military Observer Group (ECOWAS-ECOMOG) and the African Conflict Response Initiative (ACRI) -- D. Australia in Southeast Asia -- III. Conclusion -- Conclusion -- Afterwards-aftermath.
Richard G. Hovannisian, editor, Looking backward, moving forward : confronting the Armenian Genocide, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers, 2003.
Joy James, editor, Imprisoned intellectuals : America's political prisoners write on life, liberation, and rebellion, Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
Contents: Letter from Birmingham Jail / Martin Luther King, Jr. -- The ballot or the bullet / Malcolm X -- Political prisoners, prisons, and Black liberation / Angela Y. Davis -- Prison, where is thy victory? / Huey P. Newton -- Towards the United Front / George Jackson -- COINTELPRO and the destruction of Black leaders and organizations / Dhoruba bin Wahad -- Religion and revolution / Jalil Muntaquim -- July 4th address / Assata Shakur -- Coming of age : a Black revolutionary / Safiya Bukhari -- An updated history of the new Afrikan prison struggle / Sundiata Acoli -- Anarchism and the Black revolution / Lorenzo Komboa Ervin -- Intellectuals and the gallows / Mumia Abu-Jamal ---Genocide waged against the Black nation / Mutulu Shakur [ www.mutulushakur.com ] -- The struggle for status under international law / Marilyn Buck -- White North American political prisoners / Rita Bo Brown -- On trial / Raymond Luc Levasseur -- Letter to the Weathermen / Rev. Daniel Berrigan -- Maternal convictions / Michele Naar-Obed -- An interview with lesbian political prisoners -- This is enough! / Jose Solis Jordan -- Art of liberation : a vision of freedom / Elizam Escobar -- Violence and the state / Standing Deer -- Inipi : sweat lodge / Leonard Peltier. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: Prisoners--United States--Biography. Political prisoners--United States--Biography. Intellectuals--United States--Biography. Government, Resistance to--United States. Political crimes and offenses--United States. Series: Transformative politics series
Raju G.C. Thomas, Yugoslavia unraveled : sovereignty, self-determination, intervention, Lanham, Md. : Lexington Books, 2003.
Contents: Sovereignty, self-determination, and secession : principles and practice / Raju G.C. Thomas -- The future of nationalism / Michael Mandelbaum -- Transnational causes of genocide, or, How the West exacerbates ethnic conflict / Alan J. Kuperman -- Religion and war : fault lines in the Balkan enigma / P.H. Liotta -- Economic aspects of Yugoslavia's disintegration / Milica Z. Bookman -- International policy in southeastern Europe : a diagnosis / Gordon N. Bardos -- Wars, humanitarian intervention, and international law : perceptions and reality / Raju G.C. Thomas -- The use of refugees as political and military weapons in the Kosovo conflict / Kelly M. Greenhill -- Propaganda system one : from Diem and Arbenz to Milosevic / Edward S. Herman -- Biased justice : "humanrightism" and the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia / Robert M. Hayden -- Illegal wars, collateral damage, and international criminal law / Michael Mandel -- Intervention in ethnic civil wars and exit strategies : lessons from South Asia / Maya Chadda -- Reflections on the Yugoslav wars : a peacekeeper's perspective / Satish Nambiar.
John C. Torpey, editor, Politics and the past : on repairing historical injustices, Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
Contents: 1. Introduction: Politics and the past / J. Torpey -- 2. The politics of regret: analytical frames / J. Olick and B. Coughlin -- 3. Coming to terms with the past / A. Cairns -- 4. Restitution and amending historical injustices in international morality / E. Barkan -- 5. Reflections on reparations / R. Brooks -- 6. Calculating slavery reparations: theory, numbers and implications / D. Conley -- 7. War compensation: claims against the Japanese government and Japanese corporations for war crimes / L. Hein -- 8. Negotiating new relationships: Canadian museums, first nations, and cultural property / R. Phillips and E. Johnson -- 9. Is truth enough? Reparations and reconciliation in Latin America / S. Lean -- 10. Moral integrity and reparations for Africa / R. Howard-Hassmann -- 11. Wealth of nations: aboriginal treaty-making in the era of globalization / R.S. Ratner, W.K. Carroll and A. Woolford -- 12. Victims of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Rwanda: the legal and institutional framework of their right to reparation / S. Vandeginste -- 13. Justice, history and memory in France: reflections on the Papon trial / H. Rousso -- 14. Overcoming the past? Narrative and negotiation, remembering and reparation: issues at the interface of history and the law / C. Maier. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Samuel Totten, editor, Working to make a difference : the personal and pedagogical stories of Holocaust educators across the globe, Lanham ; Boulder ; New York : Lexington Books, 2003.
Amir Weiner (b. 1961), editor,.Landscaping the human garden : 20th century population management in a comparative framework, Stanford University Press, July 2003, 408 pages, 15 illustrations,
Notes: "This volume grew out of a workshop held at the Stanford Humanities Center, Stanford University, on 28-29 March 1997." Contents: Introduction: landscaping the human garden / Amir Weiner -- State violence as technique : the logic of violence in Soviet totalitarianism / Peter Holquist -- The transformation of state and society in World War I Germany / Elisabeth Domansky -- Corporatism or democracy : the Russian provisional government of 1917 / Daniel Orlovsky -- The dead and the unborn : French pronatalism and the abortion law of 1920 / Mary Louise Roberts -- "More masculine men, more feminine women" : the iconography of Nazi racial hatreds / Claudia Koonz -- Defining enemies, making victims : Germans, Jews, and the Holocaust / Omer Bartov -- When memory counts : war, genocide, and postwar Soviet Jewry / Amir Weiner -- Social darwinism versus social engineering : the education of Japanese Americans during World War II / Gordon Chang -- How to construct a productive, disciplined, monoethnic Society : the dilemma of east central European governments, 1914-1956 / Istvan Deak -- Ethnic cleansing between war and peace / Norman Naimark -- Female images in a state of war : the Israeli war widow in fiction and film / Yael Zerubavel. Includes bibliographical references and index.
Amy Hungerford, The holocaust of texts : genocide, literature, and personification, Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2003.Contents: Plath and her critics, "writing" and life -- Nuclear holocaust and the literary victim -- Surviving Rego Park -- Memorizing memory -- Bellow, Roth, and the secret of identity. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: Plath, Sylvia--Views on war. Bellow, Saul--Views on war. Roth, Philip--Views on war. American literature--20th century--History and criticism. War in literature. World War, 1939-1945--United States--Literature and the war. Holocaust, Jewish (1939-1945), in literature. Identity (Psychology) in literature. Nuclear warfare in literature. Personification in literature. Group identity in literature. Genocide in literature. Jews in literature.
Richard Lee Turits, Foundations of despotism : peasants, the Trujillo regime, and modernity in Dominican history, Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, Feb. 2003.
Subjects: Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina (1891-1961), Dominican Republic--History 1930-1961. Contents: Freedom in El Monte : from slaves to independent peasants in colonial Santo Domingo -- Imagining modernity : peasants, property, and the state in the century after independence -- Peasant-state compromise and rural transformation under the Trujillo dictatorship -- Negotiating dictatorship : landowners, state officials, and everyday contests over agrarian reform -- Bordering the nation : race, colonization, and the 1937 Haitian massacre in the Dominican frontier -- Taming the countryside : agricultural colonies as rural reform under the Trujillo regime -- Memories of dictatorship : rural culture and everyday forms of state formation under Trujillo -- The birth of a Dominican sugar empire and the decline of the Trujillo regime. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index.
James Ron, Frontiers and ghettos : state violence in Serbia and Israel, Berkeley : University of California Press, 2003.Ron James is the author of Weapons transfers and violations of the laws of war in Turkey (New York : Human Right[s] Watch, 1995) . Contents: Institutional settings and violence -- Bosnian frontier formation ---Ethnic cleansing on the Bosnian frontier ---Ethnic harassment in the Serbian core -- Kosovo's changing institutional fate -- Creating the Palestinian ghetto -- Policing the ghetto -- Alternatives to policing. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: State-sponsored terrorism--Yugoslavia--Serbia. State-sponsored terrorism--Israel. Serbia--Ethnic relations--Political aspects. Serbia--Politics and government--1992- Israel--Ethnic relations--Political aspects. Israel--Politics and government--1993-
Barbara Alice Mann, Native Americans, archaeologists, and the mounds, Series: American Indian studies ; v. 14, New York, N.Y. : Peter Lang, 2003.
Contents: Introduction -- On riding that undead horse of native discourse. The "vulture culture" -- Anthropology collects Native America. The "slaughter" of the mounds -- Settler myths and despoliations. "We can make a Waukauhoowaa" -- Native traditions of the mounds. Kokomthena, singing in the flames -- Sky-earth logic in the mounds. Blabbermouth bones -- NAGPRA, remythologized archaeology, and documentary genocide -- Epilogue: "Whatever you do, don't touch that old woman" -- Strategies for Eastern Native Americans. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: United States. Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Indians of North America--Antiquities--Collectors and collecting. Indians of North America--Funeral rites and ceremonies. Mounds--United States. Archaeology--United States. United States--Antiquities--Collectors and collecting.
Zvi Gitelman, editor, The emergence of modern Jewish politics : Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe, Pittsbugh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.
Contents: The legacy of the Bund and the Zionist movement / Zvi Gitelman -- 2. The other modern Jewish politics: integration and modernity in fin de si¨cle Russia / Benjamin Nathans -- 3. The new Jewish politics and its discontents / Antony Polonsky -- 4. National minority policy, Bundist social organizations, and Jewish women in interwar Poland / Daniel Blatman -- 5. The Left Poalei Tsiyon in interwar Poland / Samuel D. Kassow -- 6. Imitation, rejection, cooperation: Agudat Yisrael and the Zionist movement in interwar Poland / Gershon Bacon -- 7. Jewish politics and youth culture in interwar Poland: preliminary evidence from the Yivo autobiographies / Michael C. Steinlauf -- 8. The Bund and modern Yiddish culture / David E. Fishman -- 9. The political vision of I.L. Peretz / Ruth R. Wisse -- 10. Hebrew literature and Jewish nationalism in the tsarist empire, 1881-1917 / David Aberbach -- 11. Vitebsk versus Bezalel: a Jewish kulturkampf in the plastic arts / Seth L. Wolitz -- 12. The Bundists in America and the "Zionist problem" / Jonathan Frankel -- 13. Genocide and nationalism: the changing nature of Jewish politics in World War II France / Maud Mandel. Notes: Chapter 10 has been adapted from an article by David Aberbach which first appeared in Nations and Nationalism 3, no. 1 (1997): 2544, (c) ASEN 1997. Includes index. Subjects: Allgemeyner Idisher arbeyterbund in Lita, Poylen un Rusland--History. Zionism--Europe, Eastern--History. Labor Zionism--Europe, Eastern--History. Jews--Europe, Eastern--Politics and government--20th century. Jews--Europe, Eastern--Identity.
Kelly Barth, editor, The Tiananmen Square massacre, San Diego : Greenhaven Press/Thomson Gale, 2003, 124 pp.Subjects: China--History--Tiananmen Square Incident, 1989.Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 118-119) and index.
C.S. Cowles, et al., Show them no mercy : four views on God and Canaanite genocide, Series: Counterpoints, Grand Rapids, Mich. : Zondervan, March 2003.
Subjects: War--Biblical teaching. Genocide--Biblical teaching. Canaanites--Biblical teaching. Contents: The case for radical discontinuity / C.S. Cowles. Responses / Eugene H. Merrill, Daniel L. Gard, Tremper Longman III -- The case for moderate discontinuity / Eugene H. Merrill. Responses / C.S. Cowles, Daniel L. Gard, Tremper Longman III -- The case for eschatological continuity / Daniel L. Gard. Responses / C.S. Cowles, Eugene H. Merrill, Tremper Longman III -- The case for spiritual continuity / Tremper Longman III. Responses / C.S. Cowles, Eugene H. Merrill, Daniel L. Gard. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
Muna Hamzeh and Todd May, editors; Operation Defensive Shield : witnesses to an Israeli military strategy, London ; Sterling, Va. : Pluto Press, 2003.Subjects: Israel. Tseva haganah le-Yi´sra'el--West Bank. Al-Aqsa Intifada, 2000---Personal narratives, Palestinian Arab. Al-Aqsa Intifada, 2000---Personal narratives, Israeli. Al-Aqsa Intifada, 2000---Destruction and pillage--West Bank. Genocide--West Bank. Israel--Politics and government--1993-
Linda Jacobs Altman, The forgotten victims of the Holocaust, Berkeley Heights, NJ : Enslow, 2003.Genocide--Juvenile literature.Contents: Building the "Master Race" -- The Polish victims -- The Russian Campaign -- The Gypsies of Europe -- The race criminals. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index.
James D. Torr (b. 19740, , editor Primary sources : immigrants in America San Diego, Calif. : Lucent Books, 2002. 96 p.Summary: Presents the original documents used as source material for the Immigrants in America series, including letters to and from immigrants as well as excerpts from books and other writings. Contents: Introduction: Italians in America -- "Where I find bread, there is my country" -- "No poor" and "very few crimes" -- Reports of the Irish potato famine -- Atlantic crossing -- Deceived into coming to America -- The lure of cheap land -- Fleeing war and genocide -- Overcoming racism -- Greedy about life again -- Rafting to freedom. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index.
Yair Auron, The banality of denial : Israel and the Armenian genocide / Yair Auron. Published/Created: New Brunswick, NJ : Transaction Publishers, 2003.
Berel Lang, Act and idea in the Nazi genocide Syracuse, N.Y. : Syracuse University Press, February 2003.
Stjepan Mestrovic, editor, Genocide after Emotion The Postemotional Balkan War Routledge, 1996 240pp
Samuel Totten, Steven Leonard Jacobs, editors, Pioneers of genocide studies, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers., 2002, xvii, 617 pp.
Contents: Historians 1. Finding the Words Rouben Paul Adalian 2. Confronting the Armenian Genocide Richard G. Hovannisian 3. Vita Felix, Via Dolorosa: An Academic Journey Towards Genocide Henry R. Huttenbach 4. Facts and Values: A Personal Intellectual Exploration James E. Mace 5. The Questioner Yves Ternon Political Scientists 6. A German-Born Genocide Scholar Barbara Harff 7. Studying Genocide to Protect Life Herbert Hirsch 8. How I Came to the Study of Genocide Kurt Jonassohn 9. My Journey in the Study of Genocide Robert Melson 10. From the Study of War and Revolution to Democide-Power Kills R. J. Rummel 11. Who is My Neighbor? Roger W. Smith 12. Breaking the Membrane Colin Tatz Sociologists 13. From Social Action to Social Theory and Back: Paths and Circles Helen Fein 14. The Quest for Scholarship in My Pathos for the Armenian Tragedy and Its Victims Vahakn N. Dadrian 15. Gauging Genocide: Social Science Dimensions and Dilemmas Irving Louis Horowitz 16. Leo Kuper: A Giant Pioneer Israel W. Charny 17. My Path to Genocide Studies Eric Markusen Lawyers and Jurists 18. Bearing Witness M. Cherif Bassiouni 19. Totally Unofficial Man Raphael Lemkin 20. The Call Gregory H. Stanton Psychologists 21. A Passion for Life and Rage at the Wasting of Life Israel W. Chamy 22. The Roots and Prevention of Genocide and Other Collective Violence: A Life's Work Shaped by a Child's Experience Ervin Staub Theologian 23. From Holocaust to Genocide: The Journey Continues Steven Leonard Jacobs Independent Scholars 24. Confronting Genocide in Cambodia David Hawk 25. A Matter of Conscience Samuel Totten
NYT December 22, 2003 The Battle of Srebrenica, in Its Operating By CHRIS HEDGES Many of the best books on war are not by or about soldiers. Soldiers are too easily seduced by the power wielded by the leviathan. The most dedicated attempts to relay the reality of combat fail to convey the essential ingredient that defines it, fear. War scenes, even in the best accounts, often become war pornography. Books and films meant to denounce war often end up feeding a prurient fascination with violent death. War becomes not less attractive, as the writers hoped, but darkly enticing. What makes Dr. Sheri Fink's book "War Hospital: A True Story of Surgery and Survival" successful is her decision to describe the Bosnian war through the eyes of the doctors trapped in the Muslim enclave of Srebrenica. Srebrenica, despite promises of protected status by the United Nations, was abandoned in July 1995 to advancing Bosnian Serb forces. They killed as many as 7,500 Muslim men in the days after its capture. It was the largest massacre in Europe since World War II. "Srebrenica crystallized a truth understood only too late by the United Nations and the world at large: that Bosnia was as much a moral cause as a military conflict," the United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, wrote in a 1999 report. "The tragedy of Srebrenica will haunt our history forever." This is not a litany of operating room horror stories, although there are enough to keep the reader focused on what iron fragments and bullets do to people. It is hard to read this book and want ever to be in battle. "The other doctor presses down on the patient's knee with his left hand to steady it, forceps dangling from his fingers," Dr. Fink writes of an amputation. "With his right hand he saws and saws with his scalpel. The edge of the blade slices through a dense network of nerve endings in the membrane around the bone, the periosteum. The patient yells." The heart of the book is the "moral cause" and how to respond. Dr. Fink is able, by focusing on the casualties of war, to center her book on the essence of war, which is the organized maiming, crippling and murder of other human beings for political ends. Her story is an antidote to the abstract calls of glory, honor and heroism, words that can fill hearts with pride but that sound hollow in crowded, bloodied hospital corridors. Yet she reaches beyond even these themes and confronts the role of humanitarian assistance in wartime, raising the larger question of what must be done in the face of genocide. By focusing on a small group of doctors and medical workers, including some foreign volunteers, she is able to draw us into their world, complete with their personal vanities, peccadilloes and weaknesses. The smug indifference of some senior United Nations bureaucrats is juxtaposed with the life of the doctors who operate under shellfire, often until they collapse from exhaustion. But Dr. Fink is careful to remind us how depraved life became within the enclave. Hordes of knife-wielding scavengers, known as hapsi, a Bosnian word for petty thieves, follow Muslim raiders into Serbian villages where they kill, mutilate and loot. There are few prisoners on either side because nearly all are executed. Warlords within Srebrenica grow rich off the black market, selling the scarce donated medicines for exorbitant sums and gunning down rivals. Elderly Serbs who remain behind in the enclave, along with wounded Serbian soldiers, are murdered. It is, as she writes, a "sadistic sociology experiment called Srebrenica." By refusing to sanctify the victims she adds to the power and pathos of her book. However unsavory the victims, they were still victims of appalling crimes. One comes away with even more distaste for the spineless Dutch commanders of the tiny United Nations protection force, as well as for a host of world leaders and United Nations officials who did nothing despite desperate pleas for help and their repeated promises of protection. Intervention, when it finally did come, came too late for those murdered in Srebrenica, or for some 250,000 other victims of the war. Dr. Fink brings us into this world gone mad, where everyone laps up the depraved and sickening brew of war. But her real goal is to make us face our own culpability. We are guilty of genocide because we did not intervene. Neutrality, too, can be a crime. This is not a morality tale for others, but for ourselves.
Boston Globe Holocaust puzzles Theories on why ordinary Germans acquiesced and a hospital survived By Antony Polonsky, 12/21/2003 The Nazi Conscience By Claudia Koonz Belknap, 362 pp., illustrated, $29.95 Refuge in Hell: How Berlin's Jewish Hospital Outlasted the Nazis By Daniel B. Silver Houghton Mifflin, 311 pp., illustrated, $24 These two books deal with one of the central questions in the history of the National Socialist regime in Germany: How was the Nazi leadership able to persuade the German people to accept, first, the disenfranchisement and expropriation of what until 1933 had been one of the best-assimilated Jewish communities in Europe, and then, after the invasion of the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941, the mass murder of all Jews -- men, women, and children -- in the Nazi sphere of influence? Historian Daniel Goldhagen has provided one explanation, claiming that from the late 19th century a general agreement developed in Germany that the Jews were an undesirable and harmful element in society. This consensus for "eliminationist anti-Semitism" led ordinary Germans to become "Hitler's willing executioners." This explanation has not gained general acceptance. Most scholars have stressed the successes of Jewish integration -- the fact that by 1930 nearly 30 percent of Jews marrying in Germany were taking non-Jewish partners and that alongside the 550,000 Jews in Germany when the Nazis took power in January 1933, there were at least another 200,000 Germans descended in some degree from Jews. The Nazis had great difficulty in providing a clear definition of what constituted a Jew from a "racial" point of view, and the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 took a rather restricted view of this problem, creating categories of first- and second-class "mixed persons" (Mischlinge). First-class Mischlinge (the higher category from the Nazi point of view) were those with two Jewish grandparents but unconnected with organized Jewish life. They could intermarry with "racially pure" Germans, and the hope was that they would be absorbed in the national community. Acts of anti-Jewish violence often aroused unease among those who observed them -- this was particularly the case with the disorder that followed the assassination in November 1938 of a German diplomat by a desperate Jewish youth. As late as October 1943, Heinrich Himmler, the principal architect of the Nazi genocide, in a secret speech to the leading figures in the SS could refer to "a really grave matter . . . which could never be spoken of in public . . . the annihilation of the Jewish people." He went on: " 'The Jewish people is going to be annihilated,' says every party member. 'Sure, it's in our program, elimination of the Jews, annihilation -- we'll take care of it.' And then they all come trudging, million worthy Germans, and each one has his one decent Jew." The success of the Nazis in carrying out their attempt first to exclude the Jews from German society and then to carry out a Jewish genocide has usually been attributed to the skill with which they scapegoated the Jews and showed that they could be attacked with impunity. Claudia Koonz has a different explanation. She argues that Hitler and the Nazis did not directly propagate their extremist anti-Semitism among the large majority of Germans. Hitler, in particular, kept his virulent hatred of the Jews for his inner circle and instead built his charismatic appeal not on a summons to hate, but in his appeal to the collective virtue of the German people and the need to reconstruct a sense of community destroyed by decadent liberalism and divisive socialism. Koonz calls her book "The Nazi Conscience," quoting a speech of Hitler's of Oct. 8, 1935, in which he claimed that "I view myself as the most independent of men . . . obligated to no one, subordinate to no one, indebted to no one -- instead answerable only to my own conscience. And this conscience has but one single commander -- our Volk!" Certainly in the years from 1933 to 1939, Nazi public culture was saturated with a blend of racial fear and ethnic pride that Koonz describes as ethnic fundamentalism. Ordinary Germans were prepared for genocide by the widespread propagation of racial concepts -- generally presented as part of a worldwide trend in favor of eugenics and racial hygiene -- in ostensibly nonpolitical form through academic research, documentary films, and mass-market magazines. Koonz does not deny the existence of extremist and violent anti-Semites in the Nazi leadership. But her stress on the moderate way their ultimately genocidal plans were presented as necessary cruelties adds an important dimension to our understanding of the Nazi regime and its crimes. | Daniel Silver, in "Refuge in Hell," describes one of the strangest paradoxes of the Nazi genocide. Throughout the war, while the Nazis were murdering millions of Jews, the main Jewish hospital in Berlin, founded in the 18th century, continued to function. This hospital, one of the most advanced medical facilities in the German capital, was the last surviving Jewish institution in Germany when Berlin was liberated in April 1945. In addition to its medical functions, during the war it also served as a prison, a ghetto, a deportation center, a branch of the Gestapo, and a small army camp. It was home to about 800 doctors, nurses, patients, and others, most of them half-Jewish or Jewish, living in "privileged" mixed marriages. They constituted a large proportion of the legal Jewish survivors in the capital. Silver's book attempts to explain the survival of the hospital. This was above all the consequence of a turf war between rival Nazi security services. The Berlin Gestapo wanted to close the hospital in 1943, whereas the superior authority, the Main Security office, wanted to gain control of the buildings and insisted on postponing a decision. Those responsible for the administration of the hospital may also have feared that its liquidation would lead them to be sent to the Eastern Front. The hospital's survival also reflected the ambiguities of earlier Nazi policy on the Jews. Many of those working in the hospital or patients there were Mischlinge. This was the case of the director of the hospital, Walter Lustig, a convert to Lutheranism who had good links with a number of leading Nazis. (Lustig was arrested after the war by the Soviets who occupied the part of Berlin where the hospital was located and was probably executed by them.) The durability of the hospital may also be linked with one of the most perplexing events in the history of the genocide. At the beginning of 1943, Hitler ordered that the remaining 40,000 Jews in Berlin be deported. Those arrested were held in a number of locations before deportation. One of these, where a number of doctors and nurses from the hospital were detained, was on the Rosenstrasse. At the beginning of March, their non-Jewish wives and dependents, reportedly numbering from several hundred to 1,500 people, demonstrated for the release of those threatened with deportation and death. These demonstrations, unprecedented in the Third Reich, continued for several days until on March 6, Joseph Goebbels in his capacity as Gauleiter of Berlin ordered the release of the Jewish spouses and Mischlinge children imprisoned as a result of the roundups. Numbering several thousand, they mostly survived the war. Was fear of a recurrence of these demonstrations another factor in the survival of the hospital? There are no easy lessons to be learned from these two books. What they do show is that even if the Nazi persecution and genocide of the Jews required deeply committed ideological zealots to carry it out, it could not have succeeded to the degree it did without the tacit (and in some cases active) support of the silent majority of "good" Germans. It is another demonstration of the truth of Edmund Burke's aphorism that for evil to triumph it is only necessary for good men to do nothing.
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