Yair Auron, The banality of indifference : Zionism & the Armenian genocide, (New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers, 2000), 405pp. .
Omer Bartov and Phyllis Mack, In God's Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century, Berghahn Books, 2000, 400pp.
This collection of essays addresses this hiatus by examining the intersection between religion and state-organized murder in the cases of the Armenian, Jewish, Rwandan, and Bosnian genocides. Rather than a comprehensive overview, it offers a series of descrete, yet closely related case studies, that shed light on three fundamental aspects of this issue: the use of religion to legitimize and motivate genocide; the potential of religious faith to encourage physical and spiritual resistance to mass murder; and finally, the role of religion in coming to terms with the legacy of atrocity. From the Contents: Part I: The Perpetrators: Theology and Practice - Part II: Survival: Rescuers and Victims - Part III: Aftermath: Politics, Faith, and Representation.
Gary Jonathan Bass, Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals, Princeton University Press, 2000, 402 pp.
Gary Jonathan Bass, a professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton and a former reporter for the Economist, examines several cases: the trials of Bonapartists in 1815, trials following World War I of German war criminals and of Turks who carried out the genocide of the Armenians, the Nuremberg trials and their equivalents in Tokyo, and contemporary efforts to prosecute individuals guilty of war crimes in Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Chapter One: Introduction 3 Chapter Two: St. Helena 37 Chapter Three: Leipzig 58 Chapter Four: Constantinople 106 Chapter Five: Nuremberg 147 Chapter Six: The Hague 206 Chapter Seven: Conclusion 276 Chapter Eight: Epilogue 284 http://pup.princeton.edu/chapters/s6925.html
Ward Churchill, "Forbidding the "G-Word": Holocaust Denial as Judicial Doctrine in Canada" Other Voices, v.2, n.1 (February 2000) [ Other Voices is an electronic journal of cultural criticism published at the University of Pennsylvania. Founded in March 1997, http://www.english.upenn.edu/~ov/2.1/churchill/denial.html ]
Milton J. Esman and Ronald J. Herring, Editors, Carrots, sticks, and ethnic conflict : rethinking development assistance, (Ann Arbor, Mich. : University of Michigan Press, 2000)
David Carment and Frank Harvey, Using Force to Prevent Ethnic Violence An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence, Praeger Publishers. Westport, Conn. 2000. 192 pp.
This book serves as an important research tool for students, scholars, and policy makers involved with ethnic conflict and international relations. Carment and Harvey examine how regional and international security organizations can prevent destructive ethnic conflict and manage cases in which violence already is at hand. They develop a conceptual framework for advancing basic research on the prevention and management of intrastate ethnic violence; evaluate theoretical knowledge about the nature of ethnic conflict, using case material and quantitative assessments: and apply these assumptions against recent instances of conflict management through an in-depth study of NATO's involvement in Kosovo and Bosnia. Chapters include: Early Warning and Conflict Prevention: Theory and Practice * The Theory and Practice of Coercive Diplomacy; Part I * The Theory and Practice of Coercive Diplomacy, Part II: Controlling Escalation Through Deterrence and Compellence * Predicting Success and Failure States Versus Institutions * NATO and Post-Conflict Resolution in Bosnia and Kosovo * Evaluating Third Party Efforts to End Intrastate Ethnic Conflict * Conclusion: The Evolution of Ethnic Conflict. David Carment is Associate Professor of International Affairs at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Frank Harvey is Associate Professor of Political Science at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
Guy S. Goodwin-Gill and Stefan Talmon, editors, The Reality of International Law : Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie,
This collection, which has three useful essays related to genocide, was written as a festschrift in honour of one of Ian Brownlie, one of the leading international lawyers of our time. His commitment to international law as a system for the regulation of affairs between states has long been characterized by a strong sense of ideals, political and human, but also by an awareness of what law is in practice, what is achievable, and what remains to be done. The essays are: "The Legality of Restrictions on Freedom of Movements within States", by Chaloka Beyani; "The Differing Concepts of War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity in International Criminal Law", Ny Bing Bing Jia; and "State Responsibility and the 1948 Genocide Convention", by Nina H.B. Jorgensen. The editors, Guy S. Goodwin-Gill are Professor of International Refugee Law at Oxford University and Stefan Talmon, Wissenschaftlicher at Tubingen University. The Foreword is by Robert Jennings.
Priscilla B. Hayner, Unspeakable Truths : Confronting State Terror and Atrocity, (Routledge, Dec. 2000), 304 pp.
A detailed survey of the twenty major truth commissions established around the world, with special attention to South Africa, El Salvador, Argentina, Chile, and Guatemala. Exploring inner workings of these official investigations - the anguish, the injustice, and the legacy of hate they are meant to absolve - the author finds that victims are torn between the need to remember and the need to forget.
Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide, Zed Books, Oct. 2000, 288pp.
Investigative journalism containing new and startling information on this international scandal, revealing how the great powers failed to heed the warnings of the coming Rwandan genocide and how these powers refused to acknowlede the genocide once it began. The role of the United Kingdom comes under particular scrutiny. A set of secret documents leaked to the author from within the Security Council proves that the circumstances of the genocide were suppressed or ignored.
Barrington Moore, Jr., Moral Purity and Persecution in History, 192 pp.
Barrington Moore's Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy was a foundational work of historical sociology. Moore takes up the same tools of historical comparison to investigate why groups of people kill and torture each other. His answer is arrestingly simple: people persecute those whom they perceive as polluting due to their "impure" religious, political, or economic ideas. Moore's search begins with the Old Testament's restrictions on sexual behavior, idolatry, diet, and handling unclean objects. He argues that religious authorities seeking to distinguish the ancient Hebrews from competing groups invented, along with monotheism, the association of impure things with moral failure and the violation of God's will. This allowed people to view those holding competing ideas as contaminated and, more important, contaminating. Moore moves next to the French Wars of Religion, in which Protestants and Catholics massacred each other over the control of purity, and the French Revolution, which perfected terror and secularized purity. He then combs the major Asian religions and finds--to his surprise--that violent efforts to eradicate the "impure" were largely absent before substantial Western influence. Moore's provocative conclusion is that monotheism--with its monopoly on virtue and failure to provide supernatural scapegoats--is responsible for some of the most virulent forms of intolerance and is a major cause of human nastiness and suffering. Contents: CHAPTER 1 Moral Purity and Impurity in the Old Testament CHAPTER 2 Purity in the Religious Conflicts of Sixteenth-Century France CHAPTER 3 Purity as a Revolutionary Concept in the French Revolution CHAPTER 4 Notes on Purity and Pollution in Asiatic Civilizations
Neal Riemer, editor, Protection Against Genocide Mission Impossible? (Westport, Conn. 2000), 208 pp.
Originaly papers presented at a 1998 conference at Drew University, these essays explore key problems in working toward prevention of genocide, highlighting the existence of considerable early warning of genocide and emphasize that the real problem is a lack of political will in key global institutions. Sanctions, especially economic sanctions may punish a genocidal regime, but at the expense of innocent civilians. Thus, more clearly targeted sanctions are seen as essential. The argument on behalf of a standing police force to deal with the crime of genocide, as they show, is powerful and controversial: powerful because the need is persuasive, controversial because political realists question its cost and political feasibility. Implementing a philosophy of just humanitarian intervention requires an appreciation of the difficulties of interpreting those principles in difficult concrete situations. A permanent international criminal tribunal to deter and punish genocide, they argue, will put into place a much needed component of a global human rights regime. Chapters include: The Urgent Need for Global Human Rights Regime, by Neal Riemer -- The Evolution of the International System and its Impact on Protection Against Genocide, by Douglas W. Simon -- The Three P's of Genocide Prevention: With Application to a Genocide Foretold, by Helen Fein -- Economic Sanctions and Genocide: Too Little, Too Late, and Sometimes Too Much, by George A. Lopez -- Can an International Criminal Court Prevent and Punish Genocide?, by David Wippman -- A UN Constabulary to Enforce the Law on Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, by Saul Mendlovitz and John Fousek -- On Humanitarian Intervention, by Michael Smith
James J. Sadkovich, The U.S. Media and Yugoslavia, 1991-1995, (Praeger Publishers. Westport, Conn. 1998), 296 pp.
"Sadkovich has compiled a truly masterly assessment of the US media's biased and generally inept, if perhaps well-intentioned, efforts to make sense of [the unraveling of Yugoslavia]. What emerges is a searing indictment of the manner in which American media -- press, radio, and television -- go about reporting information, layered with bias, stereotypes, agenda-setting, and judgmental ethnic evaluations of morality. A useful bibliography and chapter notes provide a valuable mine of information. Recommended for undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty."
William A. Schabas, Genocide in International Law: The Crime of Crimes, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 624 pp.
The provisions of the 1948 Genocide Convention are now being interpreted in important judgments by the International Court of Justice, the ad hoc Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and increasingly in domestic courts. In this definitive work William A. Schabas gives detailed attention to the concept of protected groups, the quantitative dimension of genocide, problems of criminal prosecution, and issues of international judicial cooperations such as extradition. He explores the duty to prevent genocide, and the consequences this may have on the emerging law of humanitarian intervention. Contents: Introduction; 1. Origins of the legal prohibition of genocide; 2. Drafting of the Convention and subsequent normative developments; 3. Groups protected by the Convention; 4. The physical element of the offence of actus reus; 5. The mental element of the offence or mens rea; 6. 'Other acts' of genocide; 7. Defences to genocide; 8. Prosecution of genocide by international and domestic tribunals; 9. State responsibility and the role of the international court of justice; 10. Prevention of genocide; 11. Treaty law questions and the Convention; Conclusion.
Ray Spangenburg, The crime of genocide : terror against humanity, (Berkeley Heights, NJ : Enslow Publishers, 2000.
Contents: Genocide : the slaying of a people -- The holocaust : massacre of millions -- The holocaust : why? -- The Armenian genocide : nearly one hundred years of denial -- Cambodia : a people turned on itself -- Rwanda : incited massacre -- Bosnia and Kosovo : genocide and "ethnic cleansing" -- Genocide and the scales of justice -- What can we do?.
Anthony A. Tatossian, In the shadows of the two World Wars, (Montréal : Anto Pub., 2000) 183pp. [Personal narrative on the viciousness of war and the grave consequences of two world wars on the Armenian and Greek peoples ]
Paul Julian Weindling, Epidemics and genocide in Eastern Europe, 1890-1945, Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2000, 486 pp.
How did typhus come to be viewed as a "Jewish disease" and what was the connection between the anti-typhus measures during the First World War and the Nazi gas chambers and other genocidal medical practices in the Second World War? This powerful book provides valuable new insight into the history of German medicine in its reaction to the international fight against typhus and the perceived threat of epidemics from the East in the early part of this century. Paul Weindling examines how German bacteriology became increasingly racialized, and how it sought to eradicate the disease by the eradication of the perceived carriers. Delousing became a key feature of Nazi preventive medicine during the Holocaust, and gassing a favored means of eliminating typhus. CONTENTS: PART 1: MICROBES AND MIGRANTS 1. Disease as Metamorphosis 2. Eradicating Parasites 3. Cleansing Bodies, Defending Borders 4. The First World War and Combating Lice PART II: CONTAINMENT 5. Defending German Health: Technical Solutions 6. The Sanitary Iron Curtain: The Relief of Polish and Russian Typhus 7. German-Soviet Medical Collaboration 8. The Demise of Internationalism PART III: ERADICATION 9. From Geo-medicine to Genocide 10. Delousing and the Holocaust 11. 'Victory with Vaccines': Human-Guinea Pigs and Louse-Feeders 12. From Medical Research to Biological Warfare 13. Clinical Trials on Trial APPENDICES I. Typhus statistics in Germany, Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine II. Typhus Vaccines and Sera, 1876-1944 Select Bibliography Index. Paul Weindling is Professor in the History of Medicine in the School of Humanities, Oxford Brookes University. His publications include Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism (Cambridge University Press, 1989), Delousing Eastern Europe: German Bacteriology between Disinfection and Genocide, 1890s-1940s (1999), 'Compulsory Sterlilisation in National Socialist Germany', in German History 5, 1987, "Eugenics and the Welfare State During the Weimar Republic," in W.R. Lee and Eve Rosenhaft, eds., The State and Social Change in Germany 1880-1980 (1990), 131-60. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/humanities/staff/hipw.html
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