Nazi Occupied Europe 1941-1945: Genocide of Jews (Shoah/Holocaust)

Resources on this website  |Books and Articles | Reports | Survivor testimonies | Commemoration
Film and Video | Websites  
(Last revised May 24, 2005)

Other resources pages: Past Genocides 1901-1950: Hereros 1904 | Armenian 1915  | Holodomor 1933 | Shoah 1941 | Parajmos 1941
Past Genocides 1951-2000: East Bengal 1971 | Burundi 1972  | Cambodia 1975 | Guatemala 1982  | Iraqi Kurds 1988 | Bosnia 1992 | Rwanda 1994

Resources on this website

'Key Writings of Raphael Lemkin on Genocide - a guide to a multilingual series of texts by the activist scholar who coined the word "genocide" New Text: 'Genocide as a Crime under International Law'

'A crime without a name': Winston Churchill, Raphael Lemkin and the World War II origins of the word 'genocide'.

Books and Articles

There are several excellent bibliographies already available online, see:

A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust : Bibliographies

Simon Wiesenthal Center's Index of Bibliographies

Yad Vashem's Basic Bibliolgraphy of the Holocaust

US Holocaust Memorial Museum Library's Bibliographies (34 topics)

Reference books:

Eric Joseph Epstein and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of the Holocaust: Biography, Geography, and Terminology. 1997
Brief entries with additional suggested readings and good cross references.

Martin Gilbert, Historical Atlas of the Holocaust.

230 color maps are combined with text in this atlas produced by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and the Wexner Learning Center.

Walter Laqueur & Judith Tydor Baumel, editors, The Holocaust Encyclopedia (New Haven, Conn.:Yale Univ Press, 2001)

Provides hundreds of entries and over 250 photographs of such Holocaust related topics as antisemitism, euthanasia, and mischlinge, incuding biographical entries.

Israel Gutman (editor) Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. 1990

An in-depth overview of many aspects of the Holocaust with articles and short bibliographies for each topic. Most or all of the text of these volumes is now available on the Simon Wiesenthal Centers website

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust Offers eight essays and over six hundred entries on significant aspects of the Holocaust, including key people, places, camps, events, and organizations. by Robert Rozett (editor); Robert Rozette (editor); Shmuel Spector (editor)

Spector, Shmuel ed., The Encyclopedia of Jewish life before and during the Holocaust. New York: New York University Press, 2001

Other recommended books:

Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl
Elie Wiesel, Night
Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz
Art Spiegelman, Maus I and II

Robert S. Wistrich, Hitler and the Holocaust, New York: The Modern Library, 2001

Leni Yahil, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry. New York: Oxford Press, 1990. Translated from Hebrew

Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933--1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975.

Deborah Dwork and Robert Jan van Pelt. Holocaust: A history. New York: W.W. Norton, 2002.

Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust: A History of the Jews in Europe during the Second World War. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985.

Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1961 (definitive edition, New York: Holmes and Meier, 1985).

Omer Bartov, Interpreting the Holocaust

Rita Steinhardt Botwinick, A History of the Holocaust, 2nd edition. Prentice Hall.

Christopher Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Harper Collins, 1992 and 1998

Joseph R. Mitchell, and Helen Buss Mitchell. The Holocaust: Readings and Interpretations. McGraw Hill.

Yehuda Bauer. A History of the Holocaust. 2nd edition.Watts Publishers. 1982 and [ ]

Samuel Oliner and Pearl Oliner, The Altruistic Personality New York, Free Press.1990

Eva Fogelman, Conscience & Courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust (Anchor, 1994)

Robert Abzug, America Views the Holocaust (Bedford/St. Martin's, 1998)

David Wyman, The Abandonment Of the Jews Random House, 1984

Robert Kesting, The Black Experience during the Holocaust, The Holocaust & History.

Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory (Free Press, 1993)


Sullivan, Edward T. The Holocaust in Literature for Youth: A Guide and Resource Book. 1999 A book-length bibliography of books, biographies, poetry and songs, WWW links and more resources for teachers.

Reports and Reseach

Links to be added


See Simon Wiesenthal Center's Timeline of the Holocaust: 1933-1945

Annual Remembrance:

April-May 2005 also mark the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II and the liberation of Jews, Roma other survivors from Nazi Concentration Camps. The liberation by Allied armies entering Germany, Czechoslovakia and Austria shocked the world with photos and newsreels of emaciated survivors and enormous piles of skeletal corpses. US soldiers liberated Ohrdruf (Apr. 4, with 44 survivors, toured by Generals Eisenhower, Patton, and Bradley on Apr. 12), Buchenwald (Apr. 10 - 21,000 survivors), Dachau (Apr. 29 -67,000 survivors) and Mathausen (May 6 - 60,000 survivors). British soldiers liberated Bergen-Belson (Apr. 15, 60,000 survivors). Soviet solders liberated Sachsenhausen (Apr. 22 - 3,000 survivors), Ravensbrück (Apr. 29 - 3,000 female and 300 male survivors, liberated from a nearby death march) and Theresienstadt (May 8 -16,800 survivors), after previously liberating the death camps Majdanek (Jul. 27, 1944) and Auschwitz-Birkenau (Jan. 27, 1945 - 7,000 survivors, including 611 children). Also previously French forces liberated Natzweiler-Struthof on Nov. 23, 1944. The death camps Belzec, Chemlno, Sobibor and Treblinka had been already been closed by the Nazis. Other smaller camps were found throughout Germany. Tens of thousands of survivors died in the initial days and weeks after liberation. During 2005 Yom ha-Shoah will be observed on May 5. Most European countries marked the 60th anniversary of the Holocaust/Shoah on January 27, 2005. On August 2, 2004 the 60th anniversary of Roma-Sinti Auschwitz Day, marking the 1944 "liquidation" to the gas chambers of the Roma and Sinti inmates of the Auschwitz's Zigeunerlager (“Gypsy Family Camp”).

January 27 - Holocaust Remembrance Day marking the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau. Some of the Commemorations of January 27th include: Denmark's "Auschwitz-dag 2004: Tilskuer eller redningsmand?" (also:, Estonia's Holokausti päeva, Finland's Holocaustin Muistopäivän, Germany's "Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer Des Nationalsozialismus begangen" (Day of Remembrance for the Victims of National Socialism), Italy's Giorno della Memoria, Norway's Holocaustdagen, Poland's "59 lat temu wyzwolono KL Auschwitz" (KL Auschwitz Liberated 58 Years Ago) , Sweden's Förintelsens minnesdag, United Kingdom's "Holocaust Memorial Day 2004. The 60th anniversary will be in 2005

Yom HaShoah marking 27 Nisan (April 19, 1943) commemorated in Israel, the United States and around the world. April 19, 1943 was the beginning of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising when about 750 ghetto fighters held heavily- armed German police troops for nearly a month to May 16, 1943.

April 25 - Jasenovac Remembrance Day. On April 22, 1945 prisoners in the Jasenovac Concentration Camp held a mass breakout in which a few managed to escape. Jasenovac was run by the Nazi-allied Croatian Ustaša regime and held Serbian, Jewish, Roma and Muslim prisoners. . The breakout is remembered every year on the Sunday closest to April 22.

May 16, 2004
marks the 60th anniversary of the deportation of Hungarian Jews  to Auschwitz. Following 'selection' most new arrivals were sent directly to the gas chambers. Trains continued to arrive daily until July 7, 1944.. Four-fifths of the Hungarian Jewish community perished in 1944-1945. Under pressure the Hungarian government halted deportations in July. In October when they resumed, Rescue effort by Raoul Wallenberg and other saved tens of thousands, through the use of safe houses and schutzbriefe (safe conduct passes).

June 12-18 marks the anniversary of the 1938 "Gypsy Clean-Up Week" ( 'Zigeuneraufrämungswoche' ) when about 1,000 German and Austrian Roma and Sinti were deported to concentration camps at Buchenwald, Dachau, Sachsenhausen, and Lichtenburg (a camp for women) in Saxony. This event lead what survivors call the Porrajmos ('devouring') the Nazi genocide of Roma people during World War II (see August 2)

July 4 - Latvia's Holocaust Remembrance Day (July 4, 1941, Rumbula Forest )

July 16 - France's Holocaust Remembrance Day,
the roundup of Jews at the "Vel' d'Hiv" in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz (July 16, 1942).

July 23, 2004 - 60th Anniversary of the Liberation of Majdanek (Maidanek) On this day in 1944 the Soviet Army liberated the second largest Nazi Vernichtungslager (Extermination Camp) located in southeast Poland near Lublin It was at Majdanek that soldiers and news reporters first encountered can s of of Zyklon B (prussic acid), mounds of ashes and signs reading "bad und disinfektion" The BBC and other western news bureaus dismissed news stories filed their own reporters as unconfirmed "horror stories". Only 8 months later in April 1945, when Buchenwald, Belsen, and Dachau were liberated by US and British soldiers, would the West fully acknowledge the overwhelming proof of Nazi Germany's genocidal policies. . Only the Auschwitz Death Camp was larger than Majdnek. The other 3 of the 5 Nazi death camps in Poland had been dismantled in 1943: Belzec in March, Sobibor after the October 14 prisoner uprising and Treblinka in November.

August 2, 2004 the 60th anniversary of Roma-Sinti Auschwitz Day
, marking the 1944 "liquidation" to the gas chambers of the Roma and Sinti inmates of the Auschwitz's Zigeunerlager (“Gypsy Family Camp”). See also June 12-18.

September 9 - Slovakia's Holocaust Remembrance Day
marking the day September 9, 1941 when the Slovakia enacted the ''Zidovsky Kodex' (anti-Jewish code). Ruled by Monsignor Josef Tiso (1887-1947), Slovakia cooperated with Germany in the deportation of Jews. In April 1944 two Slovak Jews, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escaped from Auschwitz and wrote the first detailed report on the death camp, which reached the West in June 1944.

Sept. 23 - Lithuania's Holocaust Remembrance Day
(Zydu genocido diena), Liquidation of the Vilna ghetto to Ponar, September 23, 1943)

September 29 - Babi Yar, Ukraine, Babi Yar Memorial near Kyiv (September 29, 1941). .

November 9 - Kristallnacht
("the Night of Broken Glass") in Nazi Germany (November 9 & 10, 1938) a nationwide organized pogrom by stormtroopers all over the German Reich (including Austria) which resulted in the murder of 91 persons, the destruction and burning of nearly a thousand synagogues, the vandalism of Jewish cemeteries and the smashing of the plate glass (Kristallglas) shop windows of Jewish-owned stores, which gave the event it's name. The pogrom was instigated, with Hitler's approval, by Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) after the death on November 9 of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath, who had been shot in Paris two days before by
Herschel Grynszpan, a Jewish teenager whose parents had been expelled along with 17,000 other Polish Jews from the Reich. Nazis throughout Germany were already assembled on November 9 for the holiday known as Blutzeuge (blood oath) Day, in memory of the failed Munich 'Beer Hall' putsch of 1923. During and after the violence about 30,000 Jewish males were arrested and sent to concentration camps, where brutal conditions caused an estimated that 2,000-2,500 additional deaths. German officials calculated that 7,500 Jewish businesses were damaged or destroyed. At a conference on November 13, 1938 Hermann Goering (1893-1946) and others decided to force German Jews to pay the costs of the pogrom, imposing an "atonement" fee of 1 billion Reichsmarks (about $400 million). In the 10 months between Kristallnacht and the invasion of Poland, more than 115,000 Jews emigrated from Germany.

November 15, 2004
marks the 60th anniversary of the Publication of the 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe by Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959). This book was the first place where the word "genocide" appeared in print.  Raphael Lemkin coined the new word "genocide" in 1943 both as a continuation of his 1933 Madrid proposal and as part of his analysis of German occupation policies in Europe.

November 23, 1944
- 60th anniversary of Allied troops entering the Natzweiler-Struthof Concentration Camp southwest of Strasbourg, France. No prisoners or corpses remained in the camp, but soldiers found a disinfectation unit, an autopsy room, a gas chamber, an incinerator room with equipment intended for the burning of human bodies and a large pile of human hair, a cell room and a gas chamber and improved crematory for the killing of Jews, Roma, and captured Resistance fighters from Holland, Belgium, and France. This was the first camp found by advancing Western Armies,, but did not have the impact of the camps liberated in Germany in April 1945.

December 9 - Genocide Convention Day
(and Human Rights Day). On Dec. 9, 1948 the Genocide Convention was unanimously approved by the third UN General Assembly meeting in Paris.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was approved the following day, Dec. 10, 1948
The year 2005 includes several major anniversaries, including:
- the 60th anniversaries of liberation of Auschwitz (Jan. 27, 1945), and in April the anniversaries of the liberation of the Belson, Buchenwald and Dachau.

- the 60th Anniversary of the publication of the Nuremberg Indictment, the first public document to use the new word 'genocide'. (October 18, 1945)


Feature films:

Professor Mamlock, 1938, 105 min

Filmed in the USSR, released in New York in November 1938. Studio: LENFILM Country: RUSIA Lenght: 105' Year: 1938 Sergei Medjinsky S. Nickitina I. Zonne E. Jarov Vasili Mercouriev Oleg Zjakov Nina Sjaternikova Crew Directed by Herbert Rappaport Directed by Adolph Minkin Remake in

Last stop french 1948

The Diary of Anne Frank (1959) George Stevens (Giant) directed this

1959 film adaptation of the hit play based on the writings of Anne Frank, the Jewish girl from Amsterdam who hid in an attic with her family and others during the Nazi occupation. As Anne, Millie Perkins is something of a milky eyed enigma and--in retrospect--too old for the part; but she is surrounded by an outstanding cast, including Joseph Schildkraut as Anne's patient father, Ed Wynn as a cranky dentist who moves into Anne's "room," and Shelley Winters as the loud Mrs. Van Daan.

Justice at Nuremberg (1964, 3 hours, 11 minutes) Director: Stanley Kramer

Cast: Spencer Tracy, Burt Lancaster, Marlene Dietrich, Maximilian Schell, Montgomery Clift >> more cast & crew... Synopsis: True story dealing with the Nazi war crimes trials of several members of the German judiciary. Here the focus is on two particular individuals, the judge who must render a final opinion and one particular defendant, a well respected German scholar the defendant, played by Burt Lancaster, must come to grips with the reality of his actions or inaction

Ostre Sledované Vlaky (Closely Watched Trains) 1966, Jiri Menzel

Jiri Menzel is one of the youngest of the well-known Czech directors. His first full-length feature "", is an adaptation of a short novel by the popular Czech author Bohumil Hrabal, who collaborated with Menzel on the screenplay for the film. Menzel was 27 years old when he completed "Closely Watched Trains"; he was only 29 when it became the first Czech film to win the Oscar for Best Foreign Film in 1968. "Closely Watched Trains" is, in one sense, a sophisticated sex comedy. Set in a small town near Prague during the German occupation, it can be described as the adventures of a young man in search of an end to his virginity. In the course of this odyssey, the young man- Milos Hrma- has all kinds of misunderstandings with the older generation and frequent clashes with various officials. In a prologue to the action of the film, Hrma underscores the rifts between the generations by describing his own family's reactions to the German occupation. His grandfather, a patriotic circus magician, is killed when he heroically tries to prevent the German tanks from entering Prague by hypnotizing the enemy tank drivers. Hrma's father, on the other hand, has ignored the occupation and continues to collect a pension awarded to him through an error by his railroad union. Hrma himself is pleased with the uniform supplied to him by the Germans as a station guard- a position assigned him by an all-pervasive bureaucracy- but is indifferent to the repetitive exhortations and propaganda voiced by his distant superiors. During the first half of the film, the audience is introduced to a representative of these superiors- Zednicek, the quisling official. Zednicek first appears at the station (his entry 'is reminiscent of Lohengrin on the swan or Field Marshal Keitel entering the captured cities...') to explain 'the situation of our armies fighting for the freedom of the people of Europe, whether they appreciate it or not...' The railroad station staff, particularly the three younger members, ignore the lecture, but Hrma shows a grudging curiosity. The official responds gleefully to Hrma's questions by explaining the situation in detail, then retreats to explanation by slogan: 'When the final battle is being fought, never mind about your clothes; finery comes after the battle is won.' Finally exasperated by Hrma's repeated 'Why?', Zednicek angrily snaps, 'Because it is the Fuehrer's wish and that is enough!' What Menzel has accomplished in this and similar scenes throughout the film is to comment on contemporary Czech society by disguising the contemporary aspects. For example, to illustrate the concept of 'ideological fatigue'- the rejection of constant propagandist harangues by the socialist population- Menzel transforms the Marxist propagandists into the quisling Zednicek. To criticize the drabness and austerity of modern Czechoslovakia, he has disguised the present conditions with images of wartime shortages and controls. Perhaps the alien presence in Czech society- the Russian influence- is represnted in the film by the despised Wehrmacht soldiers. This technique of hiding his criticisms gives Menzel great freedom to examine the various societal reactions to the young railroad guard's very human, very personal problem. Disgusted with his inability to prove his manhood, Hrma decides to take his own life. The unsuccessful attempt brings him to the disapproving attention of railroad officials, who announce that he is suspect because of his family's anti-regime record and who threaten him with the charge of 'self-mutilation in order to avoid the duties of service for the protection of the Reich.' The station-manager blames Hrma's act on the selfishness of the younger generation and the decline of morality, complaining that Hrma has jeopardized his promotion to railroad inspector. The Church offers Hrma psychoanalysis. In the end, Hrma's search for sexual fulfillment leads him to join the partisans and to his subsequent death while destroying a German train. Some critics add that this ending is a challenge to the accepted stereotypes of the resistance, but these critics are too often the same ones who are blind to the deeper significance of the film as social commentary on modern Czechoslovakia. In "Closely Watched Trains", more than in any other Czech film, the director has emphasized the theme that a society without human values has little interest in youth. Hrma is interested in his personal problem and wants the others around him to be sympathetic. Ideology is confusing to him and boring to the other young railroad workers, and the traditional values of patriotism, piety and respect for the nobility- all of which are frequently expressed by the station-manager- mean little or nothing to him. By concentrating on these aspects, "Closely Watched Trains" appears as a strong, thoughtful commentary on the problem of alienation among the young people in modern Eastern Europe.

Le chagrin et la pitié (The Sorrow And The Pity) (1971, 260 min) Marcel Ophuls

Director Marcel Ophuls' monumental, award-winning chronicle of life in France under Nazi occupation during World War II was originally made for, then banned from, French TV. Newsreel footage is mixed with period music and interviews with German soldiers, members of the Resistance, and ordinary citizens who often supported--actively or inactively--the occupying forces.

Le dernier métro ( The Last Metro) (1980, 2h 10m)François Truffaut, Catherine Deneuve, Gérard Depardieu, et al. Comédie dramatique

Genocide (1981) Director: Arnold Schwartzman Narrated by Elizabeth Taylor and Orson Welles)

Synopsis: Riveting feature-length documentary by Holocaust scholar Schwartzman examines Hitler's efforts to destroy European Jewry. This Academy Award-winner will haunt and inform those studying anti-Semitism and Nazi procedures. Well-known stars provide narration. Schwartzman's film, which won an Academy Award, was the first of three feature length documentaries made for the Simon Wiesenthal Center. The 1981 "Genocide" was folloed by the 1991 Echoes that Remain narrated by Martin Landau and Miriam Margolyes) and the 1994 "Liberation" 100 min. Narrated by Ben Kingsley, Miriam Margolyes, Patrick Stewart, Jean Boht and Whoopi Goldberg

Sophie's Choice (1982, 150 min) Alan J. Pakula director

Adaptation of the William Styron novel.Sophie (Meryl Streep) is the survivor of Nazi concentration camps, who has found a reason to live in Nathan (Kevin Kline)Streep earned her second Academy

Shoah (1985, 9 h, 26 min) Claude Lanzmann Director Dominique Chapuis Camera Operator

Through haunted landscapes and human voice SHOAH is a magical film about the most barbaric act of the 20th century. Previous commentaries on the Holocaust, with its ravished skeletons and corpses, have left us shaken, but now for the first time, we experience it in our heads, in our flesh. Claude Lanzmann spent eleven years spanning the globe for surviving camp inmates, SS commandants, and eyewitnesses of the Final Solution - the Nazi's effort to systematically exterminate human beings. Without dramatic enactment or archival footage, but with extraordinary testimonies, SHOAH renders the step-by step machinery of extermination, the minutiae of timetables and finances, the logistics of herding victims into the gas chambers and disposing of the corpses afterward, the bureaucratic procedures which expedited the killing of millions of people without mentioning the words "killing" or "people."

Hitlerjunge Salomon 1990 by Arthur Brauner, himself a Holocaust survivor whose output of over 50 films ranged from shlock to the Oscar-nominated

Life Is Beautiful (1998) Roberto Benigni, Nicoletta Braschi, et al.

Italy's rubber-faced funnyman Roberto Benigni accomplishes the impossible in his World War II comedy Life Is Beautiful: he shapes a simultaneously hilarious and haunting comedy out of the tragedy of the Holocaust. An international sensation and the most successful foreign language film in U.S. history, the picture also earned director-cowriter-star Benigni Oscars for Best Foreign Language Film and Best Actor. He plays the Jewish country boy Guido, a madcap romantic in Mussolini's Italy who wins the heart of his sweetheart (Benigni's real-life sweetie, Nicoletta Braschi) and raises a darling son (the adorable Giorgio Cantarini) in the shadow of fascism. When the Nazis ship the men off to a concentration camp in the waning days of the war, Guido is determined to shelter his son from the evils around them and convinces him they're in an elaborate contest to win (of all things) a tank. Guido tirelessly maintains the ruse with comic ingenuity, even as the horrors escalate and the camp's population continues to dwindle--all the more impetus to keep his son safe, secure, and, most of all, hidden. Benigni walks a fine line mining comedy from tragedy and his efforts are pure fantasy--he accomplishes feats no man could realistically pull off--both of which have drawn fire from a few critics. Yet for all its wacky humor and inventive gags, Life Is Beautiful is a moving and poignant tale of one father's sacrifice to save not just his young son's life but his innocence in the face of one of the most evil acts ever perpetrated by the human race.

I Am Alive and I Love You, Roger Kahane's, winner of the Audience Award at the 1999 Washington Jewish Film Festival,

a railroad worker, Julien (Jerome Deschamps), seizes a letter that a Jewish woman named Sarah drops through the slats of a deportation car and delivers it to her parents and son. The encounter touches him to an extent he can't immediately gauge; he tries to save Sarah's parents, and ends up taking her boy home when the child alone survives a Nazi raid. Deschamps told a French interviewer that he admired the film precisely because Julien "arrives at Resistance by different ways." His superb performance is the rock of the movie. Julien is a real but reluctant champion: a bookish fellow who hooks up with the Underground only after he falls in love with Sarah through her diary and becomes a surrogate father to her son. Tender and unsentimental, the movie elicits tears. What's unusual is that it earns them.

The Optimists (83 min) Jack and Lisa Comforty

takes a simple human act like Julien's and multiplies it by 50,000: This tightly knit, 83-minute documentary describes a veritable epic of ethical courage. With its own casual lucidity, it draws you into history, chronicling the Bulgarian citizenry's refusal to accept genocide and their incredible success at saving their Jewish population - even though the Nazi-allied Bulgarian government deported Jews from its occupied territories of Macedonia, Yugoslavia and Thrace to the death camps. Rooted in Jack Comforty's own Bulgarian heritage, the movie shows how the protective acts of friends, the timely protests of right-minded politicians, and the towering rectitude of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church conjured a grassroots moral force that protected Jews like an invisible shield. And this shield grew visible when necessary: like when a bishop marched into a yard filled with Jews and proclaimed that if Nazis herded them into the cattle cars, he would go along with them. The movie resurrects both a forgotten piece of history and an inspirational dream of Jews, Christians and Muslims forging bonds of neighborly affection and civic partnership. The movie is named for a big band that aped the styles of Artie Shaw or Benny Goodman; in one of its most heartrending scenes, non-Jewish members save a fellow musician from certain death. Near the end, a Bulgarian Orthodox cleric declares that men must hold on to their faith and respect the faith of others, even when stripped of goods and livelihood and pride. You have to agree with the rabbi who suggests that you can define a Bulgarian as "a mensch."

Divided We Fall Directed by Jan Hrebejk

Daily Telegraph 6 Dec 2001 Divided We Fall Film Review by VICKY ROACH, Daily Telegraph SET in a small, occupied Czech town during the last years of World War II, Divided We Fall is a second-generation Holocaust film. Like the Oscar-winning Italian film Life Is Beautiful, it's informed by acceptance rather than shock or anger and, as such, is working towards the final stages of grief. Directed by Jan Hrebejk (Cosy Dens), it is a story of everyday heroism in the face of impossible circumstances. Josef (Boleslav Polivka) and his wife Marie (Anna Siskova) are a childless couple trying to maintain some semblance of normality in the face of his sterility and the war on their doorstep. When Josef, a good but passive man who has thus far observed events from the relative safety of his couch, bumps into his Jewish ex-neighbour one night after curfew, he is forced to take a stand. Unable to turn his back on the son of his former employer (Csonger Kassai), who has recently escaped from a concentration camp, Josef hides him in their pantry. One act leads to another and before he is fully aware of the consequences of his actions, Josef has become a reluctant, at times ungracious, and sometimes even downright cantankerous hero, masquerading as a Nazi collaborator. Based on a true story, Divided We Fall conjures up a strange and morally complex world in which traitors can turn out to be fundamentally decent human beings and their self-righteous anti-Nazi neighbours aren't as blameless as they might first appear to be. Divided We Fall, voted most popular film at this year's Sydney Film Festival, tackles a dark subject with a light touch. A surprising story of hope and forgiveness set against a backdrop of genocide and despair. Divided We Fall (M) Director: Jan Hrebejk Starring: Boleslav Polivka, Anna Siskova and Csonger Kassai

Varians's War (2000), a cable movie about an Armenian-American “Schindler” (the real-life Varian Fry (William Hurt) was quoted as having said,

Pianist (2002) Polanski

Release Date: December 27th, 2002 (LA/NY); expands wider in early 2003 World Premiere: May, 2002, Cannes Film Festival, in competition Premise: This is the true story of how Polish pianist Wladyslaw Szpilman (Brody) avoided being sent to the Nazi concentration camps, living and hiding in the Warsaw ghetto from 1939-1945, focusing on how he used his music to get through the horror.

Polanski explained: "I was living in the Cracow Ghetto, which means I know that period, I know Germans from that time, just like I know Poles and Jews. When writing the screenplay I could use my personal experiences without making the film too autobiographical, which is what I was trying to avoid." Story of his life: Władysław Szpilman Polanski and Szpilman met three times. First in Los Angeles many years ago, when Szpilman was touring the U.S. Then they ate dinner together at the Journalists' Club in Warsaw. Finally, when Polanski decided to film The Pianist, they met to discuss the project. But Szpilman did not live to see the film. He died in 2000, at the age of 88. Before the war, Captain Wilm Hosenfeld was a village teacher. He was drafted in 1939 and throughout the war saved a number of Poles and Jews. In 1944 he discovered Szpilman hiding in the attic of one of the very few buildings in Warsaw not razed by the Germans after the Warsaw Uprising. Hosenfeld saved Szpilman, who was starved almost to death, giving food and his own warm military coat. Later on, Hosenfeld was captured by the Red Army and Szpilman, like other Poles and Jews, tried to secure his release. Unfortunately, they failed and Hosenfeld died in 1952 in a Soviet labor camp.

Szpilman, Wladyslaw. Main Title: Pianista : warszawskie wspomnienia 1939-1945 / Wladyslaw Szpilman ; wstep i opracowanie Andrzej Szpilman ; fragmenty pamietnika Wilm Hosenfeld ; poslowie Wolf Biermann. Uniform Title: [´Smier´c miasta] Edition Information: Wyd. 1. (2). Published/Created: Kraków : Wydawn. Znak, 2000. Related Names: Szpilman, Andrzej. Hosenfeld, Wilm. Description: 212 p. : ill. ; 22 cm. + 1 sound disc (digital ; 4 3/4 in.) ISBN: 8370069541 Notes: Full version of the 1946 ed.

Szpilman, Wladyslaw. The pianist : the extraordinary story of one man's survival in Warsaw, 1939-45 / Wladyslaw Szpilman ; with extracts from the diary of Wilm Hosenfeld ; foreword by Andrzej Szpilman ; epilogue by Wolf Biermann ; translated by Anthea Bell. 1st ed. ´Smier´c miasta. English New York : Picador USA, c1999. 221 p. ; 22 cm.

Szpilman, Wladyslaw. The pianist : the extraordinary story of one man's survival in Warsaw, 1939-45 / Wladyslaw Szpilman ; with extracts from the diary of Wilm Hosenfeld ; foreword by Andrzej Szpilman ; epilogue by Wolf Biermann ; translated by Anthea Bell. ´Smier´c miasta. English Bath, England : Chivers Press ; Thorndike, Me. : Thorndike Press, 2000. 241 p.

From the introduction and the afterward we learn that the book first appeared in Poland in 1946 under the title 'Smierc Miasta' (Death of a city). Already then it suffered from heavy-handed treatment by the censor - when Szpilman speaks of the German officer whom he owes his life, the censor cannot stomach a 'good German' - he has to be portrayed as an Austrian!

and yet be discovered against the backdrop of the Warsaw Rising of August 1944, and to be discovered by a German Officer....and fed, and saved. An officer who lost his own life in a Soviet camp. Often he is saved by Poles, and finally by a German captain, Wilm Hosenfeld, who feeds, clothes and helps to hide him, and for whom he plays Chopin's Nocturne in C sharp minor on a clapped-out piano amidst the rubble of Warsaw - the most unforgettable scene in an altogether unforgettable book. This is not a politically correct memoir. Indeed, if there is any bitterness - and there is almost none - it is reserved for the rich Jews of the ghetto, for the Jewish Labour Bureau and the Jewish police, who hunted their fellows and delivered them to concentration camps "with all the professionalism of racially pure SS men". Szpilman also pays tribute to the thousands of Poles who risked their lives to save the Jews, and to their own sufferings in their destroyed city. Szpilman published his story as Smierc Miasta ("Death of a City") in 1946. The book, unacceptable to Communist Poland, remained out of print until its recent publication in Germany, where it appeared - as does this English edition - together with sections from the diary of Wilm Hosenfeld, a chronicle of the utter despair felt by this good German soldier. Hosenfeld's reward for saving many Jews was seven years, and death, in a Russian labour camp.

The Grey Zone

Amen. (France / Germany - 2002)

Starring: Ulrich Tukur, Mathieu Kassovitz, Ulrich Mühe Director: Costa-Gavras Plot: During the height of World War II, a devoutly Catholic SS officer, with the help of a young Jesuit priest, tries desperately to inform Pope Pie XII about the Reich's programmed mass extermination of the Jews. Review: Based on Rolf Hochhuth's play The Representative, the historical thriller Amen is politically-minded director Costa-Gavras' (Music Box, Missing) denunciation of the Vatican under Pope Pius XII. Gavras doesn't need melodrama to make the tension apparent, alternating between the world of the SS officers grimly set to their horrifying deeds, to the immaculate corridors of the Vatican where the Roman Catholic authorities turn away from their obligations of moral condemnation. Indeed, more concerned about the threat of Communism than to the fate of "a few" Jews and worried about their own neutrality, the Vatican refused to speak out against the Nazis. The film doesn't show any of the atrocities directly (audiences have already had their fill), but alluding to them is just as powerful (the empty trains coming back from the camps, the crematorium chimneys billowing dark smoke, the powerful close-up reactions of the eye-witnesses). Though the realization that the world governments knew of the truth but did (or could do) little about it is not surprising, the film is at its most harrowing when showing the efficiency at which the task was taken by those involved, from the engineers to the bureaucrats, men whose conscience had been put on hold for their country. There are no Jewish characters in evidence here, those extras that we see limited to being powerless, anonymous victims of the Holocaust, a statement that is all the more terrifying by its blandness. The unlikely hero is the dramatized real figure of Kurt Gerstein, an SS officer who's testimony was crucial during the Nuremberg trials, superbly played by Tukur. As for the fictional young priest, played with intense idealism by Kassovitz, he is necessary to take us around the Vatican community, showing the urgency of the situation reduced to being politely dismissed. A powerful, well-acted true drama, Amen is an important testament to another side of a dark chapter in human history.
Into The Arms Of Strangers - Stories Of The Kindertransport (2000)
This Academy Award®-winning documentary (produced with the cooperation of the United States Holocaust Museum) chronicles one of the lesser-known stories of the Holocaust: that of the kindertransport, which saved the lives of 10,000 Jewish children. In the late 1930s, England agreed to accept these children seeking refuge from Nazi oppression. They were placed in foster homes and hostels. Narrated by Dame Judi Dench and directed by Mark Jonathan Harris (who received an Oscar® for his 1997 Holocaust documentary The Long Way Home),

Anne Frank - The Whole Story (2001) Anne Frank: The Whole Story delivers exactly what it promises: the incredibly moving complete story of Anne Frank, going beyond what the Jewish teenage girl wrote in her widely read diaryHannah Taylor Gordon is a superb Anne, bringing to life the multifaceted girl, in turns intelligent, dreamy, creative, spoiled, and bratty, a girl like any other except that Anne is a Jew in Nazi-occupied Holland. The only one who outshines Gordon is Ben Kingsley as Anne's father, Otto Frank.

Tomorrow - The World (1944) with Fredric March, Betty FieldThe Young Lions (1958) with Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift; They Saved Hitler's Brain (1963) ; The Shop On Main Street - Criterion Collection (1965) with Ida Kaminska, Jozef Kroner; Jacob the Liar (1975) Vault of Horror (1985) The Holcroft Covenant (1985) with Michael Caine, Anthony AndrewsThe Architecture of Doom (1989) with Meryl Streep, Kevin Kline; Triumph of the Spirit (1990) Willem Dafoe, Edward James Olmos The Quarrel (1992) with Saul Rubinek, R.H. Thomson; Shine (1996) with Geoffrey Rush, Armin Mueller-Stahl; Mother Night (1996) with Nick Nolte, Sheryl Lee, based on Kurt Vonnegut novel; The Long Way Home (1997) with Morgan Freeman; In The Presence of Mine Enemies (1997) ; Jakob the Liar (1999) with Robin Williams

EXODUS 1947: THE SHIP THAT LAUNCHED A NATION A New One Hour Documentary, narrated by Morley Safer EXODUS 1947 is the true story of how American Jews secretly financed and crewed the Exodus 1947, the most famous of the Aliyah Bet (illegal immigration) ships that tried to run the British blockade of Palestine--and captured worldwide attention in the process. In the summer of 1947, this aging Baltimore steamer crewed with an odd assortment of former Jewish-American GI's took on a cargo of 4,500 Holocaust survivors in France and sailed for Palestine. After a bloody battle with the British, the immigrants were sent back into Displaced Person camps in Germany. The newsreel and print media seized on Exodus 1947 as a symbol of Jewish struggle and the aborted voyage galvanized international support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Eyewitness testimonies and interviews with scholars are incorporated with newsreel footage and recently declassified documents to reveal how American ships, crew and financiers played a vital role in undermining British control of Palestine during the turbulent time between the Holocaust and the creation of the State of Israel--even though such involvement was contrary to U.S. government policy. "This splendid, carefully researched and assembled documentary is chock-full of fascinating details as it recalls a courageous, complex and dangerous mission with immense consequences." - Kevin Thomas, Los Angeles Times, 11/96 EXODUS 1947 USA 1996 60 minutes Color English Video; Directed by Elizabeth Rodgers and Robby Henson A video copy, for classroom/library use only, is now available for purchase from: THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR JEWISH FILM Brandeis Univ. - Lown 102 Waltham, MA 02254 617-899-7044 fax: 617-736-2070 email: For public performance rights information contact the NCJF.

Nazi Genocide of Roma-Sinti (Gypsies) film see Parajmos 1941 - film

Nazi destruction of Gay Men and Lesbians

Paragraph 175 (2000, 1 hr. 21 min.)

Another will promote "Paragraph 175," a documentary film Klaus Mueller produced with Academy Award-winning directors Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman. Paragraph 175, Mueller noted, was the sodomy provision of the German penal code in effect during World War II. "Paragraph 175" features five gays who lived to tell their stories. The film, which last year won the Sundance Film Festival documentary jury prize for directing and the Berlin International Film Festival international film critic award, will be shown on HBO in July. A Telling Pictures Production Produced and Directed by Rob Epstein & Jeffrey Friedman Narrated by Rupert Everett

Gad Beck Born into a Jewish-Christian family in 1923, autobiography An Underground Life interviews with Gad Beck (b. 1923), Heinz Dormer (b.1912), Pierre Seel (b@ 1923), Heinz F., (b. 1905), Albrecht Becker (b.1906), Annetee Eick (b.1909)

Paragraph 175 "An unnatural sex act committted between persons of male sex or by humans with animals is punishable by imprisonment; the loss of civil rights may also be imposed. - German Penal Code, 1871

Survivor testimonies

Isak Borenstein * b. 1918 "They put them on trucks, and we never saw them again."

Marcel Braitsteine "You must forget your old name, and
never reveal it to anyone."

Jeannine Burk * b. 1939 "She would hide me in the outhouse."

Aaron Elster b. 1932 "We are surrounded by tall brick walls and sharp wire that'll cut you if you touch it. We are trapped."

Felicia Fuksman b. 1924 "Searching for my family took all my energy."

Eva Galler b. 1924 "I jumped from the train and my sister and brother jumped from the train and they were killed right away."

Henry G. b. 1921"And they said, Out! And my mother said, Where are you taking them?"

Hermann Graebe  "The next batch was approaching already. They went down into the pit, lined themselves up against the previous victims and were shot."

Charles Kotkowsky* "They packed us into cattle wagons so that nobody had space to sit down." 

Marcus Leckere * b. 1923, "All were buried, even those who were still alive."

Anne Levy b. 1935 "[T]he dogs were smelling something, but they just never found us."

Edmund M.  (eyewitness) "It was just so much so that I first just wanted to grab my breath and maybe walk out immediately without going any further."


Helen R. "One morning...they started taking away the children from the mothers."

Solomon Radasky b. 1910 "We had to walk to work barefoot. . . After a few days some people could not take it anymore, and they fell down in the road. If they could not get up, they were shot where they lay."

Peter S. b. 1936 "Death was there all the time. You saw people die. You moved their bodies."

Joseph Sher b. 1917 "I was careful not to let them hit me because when they beat you up, that was it. If you could not work, you were worth nothing to them."

Leo Scher b. 1921"We never hear from them. Nobody ever came back."

Rose Ickovits Weiss Svarcs* "Because we had no facilities to wash in, in no time diarrhea and the spreading of all kinds of bacteria started to eliminate the population."

Anna W.  "We had to give up our clothes and shower. Then they shaved us...the parents were with us. That was terrible. Father, mother had to undress, too."

Kalmen Wewryk* b. 1906 "Starvation isn't something
you can communicate with words. Only those who have been through it know."

Shep Zitler * b. 1917 "This is the only picture I have of my family. . . Except for my sister Rachel and myself, none of them died a natural death."

Voices of the Holocaust Interviews conducted in 1946 in displaced persons camps around Europe and transscribed into English. Illinois Institute of Technology website

Click here - For Survivor and Eyewitness Testimonies from other Genocides


Large educational websites:

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Includes online library catalog

The Simon Wiesenthal Center

Holocaust Teacher Resource Center

The Holocaust History Project An archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust


Fundacion Memoria Del Holocausto (est. 1993, Buenos Aires. El Museo de la Shoá queda en Montevideo 919, Capital Federal. ) Exhibits include artifacts and documents donated by individuals and families of some of the 8,000 survivors who arrived in Argentina after WWII.

Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes (Documentation archives of the Austrian resistance)

KZ Gedenkstatte Mathausen mauthausen memorial, the website sponsored by the Austrian Ministry of the Interior (Bundesministerium für Inneres) site in German, English and 28 other languages


Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (est. 2000, Shalom College, University of New Souty Wales, Sydney, formerly Centre for Comparative Genocide Studies, est. 1993) Website includes a special "Pontian Genocide and Asia Minor Holocaust Research Unit" which collects and translates archives and eyewitness testimonies.

Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research Centre Melbourne, First Holocaust Museum in Australia. Our Survivor-Guides bring to life this "tragic period of European History when 6 million Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals and others were murdered by the Nazi regime."

Auschwitz Foundation Study and Documentation Center

Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS, est. 1986, Concordia Univ, Montreal, Quebec)

Fundacion Museo Shoa Y Tolerancia, Santiago

Czech Republic: Internetové stránky o holocaustu, rasismu a antisemitismu "The aim of this website is to provide Czech public with reliable and up-to-date information about the history of the Holocaust, about the Holocaust education and different related events in the Czech republic. The site is being developed as a practical tool for Czech teachers and students."

Terezinska Iniciativa, Prague. The
Terezín Initiative Institute is a non-profit organization which came to existence through transformation from Terezín Initiative Foundation (Nadace Terezínská iniciativa) founded in 1993 by international association of former prisoners of Terezín ghetto, Terezín Initiative. During WWII 150,000 Jews were held in the Theresienstadt ghetto concentration camp. The Pinkas synagogue, housing an impressive monument to the victims of "final solution of Jewish question" in Czech lands, listing 77, 297 names of Jewish victims.On August 16, 2002 the town of Terezín and the Terezín Memorial were severely affected by flooding.

Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
 (Copenhagen) see also

Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes against Humanity Lennart Meri, President of the Republic of Estonia, convened the Commission on October 2, 1998. After a detailed discussion the Commission decided that the investigation would focus on crimes against humanity committed during three distinct historical periods: The occupation of Estonia by Soviet forces in 1940-41, The occupation of Estonia by German forces in 1941-44, The second Soviet occupation beginning in 1944.

Okupatsioon Muuseum

Centre de documentation juive contemporaine (CDJC, 37 rue de Turenne, 75003 Paris ) Established in 1945 with an international library and research center. Now also the site of a memorial. Website is in French and English.. In 2004 the Centre commemorated the Rwandan genocide and hosted a photo exhibit.

Conservatoire historique du camp de Drancy

Fondation pour la memoire de la Shoah (est. 1995)

Le centre Simon Wiesenthal-Europe (Paris) European office of the Simon Wiesenthal Center

Les Fils et Filles des Déportés Juifs de France (The Sons and Daughters of the Deported Jews of France (Michel Fingerhut) Ressources documentaires sur le génocide nazi et sa négation (Documentary Resources on the Nazi Genocide and its Denial)

Survie France "Donner valeur de loi au devoir de sauver les vivants" Estblished in 1985

Documentation and Culture Centre of German Sinti and Roma Dokumentations- und Kulturzentrum Deutscher Sinti und Roma, Heidelberg

Fritz Bauer Institut Studien- und Dokumentationszentrum zur Geschichte und Wirkung des Holocaust (Fritz Bauer Institute Study- and Documentation Center on the History and Impact of the Holocaust) The first German interdisciplinary center for the study and documentation of the history and the impact of the Holocaust.

Gedenkstäetten Forum (est. 2000) the Information Portal to Memorial Sites in Germany www.gedenkstä

Haus der Wannsee-Konferenz (House of the Wannsee Conference) Est. 1992 in Berln as a memorial and educational center on the 50th anniversary of the Wannassee conference on January 20th, 1942. The ermanent exhibit is"The Wannsee Conference and the Genocide of the European Jews" Website had educational materials in 12 languages. deutschsprachiges internetportal zum thema shoah und holocaust. Diese Seite wird von der Aktion Kinder des Holocaust, Aktion Kinder des Holocaust (AKdH betreut

Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas (Foundation for the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe) Est. April 6, 2000, the Foundation administers the Berlin Holocaust Memorial approved by the Bundestag on June 25, 1999. The memorial, which will open in 2004 near Brandenburg Gate, is a field of 2,751 concrete steles complemented by an underground Information Centre in the southeastern corner of the field. The Memorial was esetablished at the urging of the Förderkreis zur Errichtung eines Denkmals für die ermordeten Juden Europas e.V. (Association Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe), the idea originating in 1988 by a circle of people around the journalist Lea

Stiftung Topographie des Terrors (Topography of Terror Foundation Berlin Germany)

Budapesti Holokauszt Múzeum és Dokumentációs Központ (Holocaust Museum and Documentation Centre). Expected to open on Budapest's Pava Street in 2004

Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide (est 1979, Jerusalem)

Ghetto Fighters' House Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum

Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority (est. 1953, Jerusalem)


Holocaust Education Center Hiroshima

Tokyo Holocaust Education Center

Committee for Evaluation of the Consequences of Totalitarian Regime Est. March 11, 1996. Its predecessor, Commission for the Investigation of Totalitarian Regime Crimes had been functioning since March 31, 1992.15 Skunu Str, Riga, LV-1050, Latvia

Lietuvos gyventoju genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras
Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania

Tarptautine komisija naciu ir sovietu okupaciniu rezimu nusikaltimams Lietuvoje ivertinti ( International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania) estab. Sept. 7. 1998. Often holds conferences in late September near the Zydu genocido diena

Jewish Community of Lithuania (JCL,est. 1989)

Committee on Human Rights of the Seimas of Lithuania

Tarptautinis Vilniaus Forumas Holokausto auku išgrobstytu kulturos vertybiu tema (Vilnius International Forum on Holocaust-Era Looted Cultural Assets)

Anne Frank Huis Anne Frank House works to familiarize young people across the globe with the story of Anne Frank and to encourage them to reflect on what it means for the present.

Centrum voor Holocaust- en Genocidestudies (Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, est. 2002 by the University of Amsterdam and the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation. The primary activities of the organization are university teaching and scholarly research in Holocaust and genocide studies. Apart from the emphasis on teaching and research, the Center aspires to make a larger audience attentive to the subjects of Holocaust and Genocide. Through public lectures and other activities, the Center provides new views to the present debate on the Holocaust and other cases of Genocide. The staff therefore directs itself on all layers in society, from high school students to academic researchers.

Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD - Netherlands Institute for War Documentation ) Part of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

HL senteret Senter for studier av Holocaust og livssyns-minoriteters stilling i Norge (The Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities in Norway) has two main fields of interest: the Holocaust on the one hand and religious minorities on the other. Within these two fields of interest the Center will contribute with new research, education and information activities, exhibitions and conferences. Moreover, it is the explicit aim to be a meeting-place for people who want to participate in the enduring controversy concerning all kinds of religious, racist and ethnic motivated repression. In 2005 we will move to Villa Grande, Quisling's residence during World War II.

Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (Panstwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau, Oswiecim, Poland) Est. July 2, 1947 by the Sejm (Parliament)

Instytut Pamieci Narodowej (IPN) - Komisja Scigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu.[The Institute of National Remembrance - Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (IPN) was created on December 18th,

Russian Holocaust Research and Educational Center Moscow

Slovak Institute of Nation Remembrance (Est. Jan. 29, 2003) In April 25th, the Slovak National Council elected authorities of the Institute of Nation Remembrance of the Slovak Republic. Mr. Jan Langosz was nominated to the position of the Institute’s President. Mr. Langosz is a former Interior Minister and parliamentarian. The tasks of the Institute are to gather, elaborate and publish analyses concerning all crimes against humanity committed during the existence of the Slovak state during the WWII and the communist regime. The Institute has been placed in the Ministry of Justice. It is estimated by the Slovak Institute’s President that every Slovak citizen will have a possibility to examine his or her records that were accumulated by the former communist services within three months starting from May 2003. In September 2003 lists of names of the former Secret Service collaborators are to be promulgated. Ministerstvo spravodlivosti Slovenskej republiky Župné námestie 13, 813 11 Bratislava

South Africa:
Cape Town Holocaust Centre the first and only Holocaust Centre in Africa.

Uppsala Program for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
(Programmet för studier kring Förintelsen och folkmord) Part of the
Uppsala University Center for Multiethnic Research (Centrum för multietnisk forskning)

Babi Yar Memorial Fund Kiev

Ukrainian Center for Holocaust Studies (Est. March 2002) The Center functions as a charitable foundation by the Department of Jewish History and Culture in Institute for Political and Ethnic Studies, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences.

United Kingdom:
Imperial War Museum (London) Offers two permanent exhibitions concerning genocide: "The Holocaust Exhibition" (opened 2000) and "Crimes against humanity: an exploration of genocide and ethnic violence" examines the common features of genocides and instances of ethnic violence over the last one hundred years, including Nazi Germany, Bosnia, Cambodia, Armenia and Rwanda.

Genocide Research and Education Centers - United States

Center for the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights (est. 2003) Center for the Study for the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights in March 2003. "With the study of the Holocaust as its foundation, the Center promotes research, publication, teaching, internships, and service that explore not only the causes of genocide and human rights abuses, but also the ethical commitments, economic policies, political processes, and leadership qualities that are necessary to oppose and correct those destructive conditions." Claremont is 35 miles east of downtown Los Angeles.

Museum of Tolerance (Los Angeles)

State of California Center for Excellence on the Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, Human Rights, and Tolerance (California State Univ., Chico) Provides teachers with updated curricular materials, survivor testimony and other educational resources to support the 'Model Curriculum for Human Rights and Genocide established 1988, revised 1998

Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation

District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.):
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), 1979, opened 1993, Wash, DC Includes the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies and the Committee on Conscience

Florida Holocaust Museum (St. Petersburg) Opened in 1992 to honor the memory of those who suffered or died in the Holocaust by "teaching members of all races and cultures to recognize the inherent worth and dignity of human life in order to prevent future genocides." The Museum hosts the Human Rights and Genocide Seminar, 5-day seminar studying genocides that have occurred around the globe.

Strassler Family Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies  (CHGS) Clark University, Worcester. MA

Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (CHGS, est. 1997) University of Minnesota. Website includes a "Virtual Museum of Holocaust and Genocide Arts;" historical narratives and documents; links, bibliographies and educational resources. The website hosts the directory of the Association of Holocaust Organizations (Est. 1985) See also the Univ. of Minnesota Human Rights Library

Center for Study of the Holocaust, Genocide, and Human Rights
Webster University, St. Louis

New Jersey:
Center for Holocaust Studies (est 1979, Brookdale Community College Lincroft, NJ) "To be a resource for: education about historical issues of the Holocaust, genocide, elimination of racism, anti-Semitism and all forms of prejudice that damage our society; and development of outstanding programs and activities regarding these crucial human issues." The library includes books on the "Holocaust and other genocidal events in history". The center also sponsors "Armenian Remembrance Day This is our commemoration of the first genocide of the 20th century."

Drew University Center for Holocaust/Genocide Study (est. 1992, Madison, NJ)

Julius & Dorothy Koppelman Holocaust/Genocide Resource Center Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ

Resource Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Ramapo College (est. 1980, Mahwan, NJ)

Holocaust and Genocide Resource Center at William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ. Located in the Curriculum Materials Department of the Library, provides Holocaust Education resources for teachers

New York:
Human Rights and Genocide Forum, Hobart and William Smith Colleges

Remember the Women Institute conducts and supports "research and cultural activities that contribute to including women in history and in memorialization." A special emphasis is on Holocaust and its aftermath. Also "topics of research may include the effects of other genocides on women (past, present, and possibly future)".

Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights Institute Nassau Community College, Garden City, NY . Includes a "Holocaust and Genocide Teacher Training Program" and courses such as "Twentieth Century Genocide" Dr. Sharon Leder

Holocaust-Genocide Studies Project (est. 1998) Monroe Community College, Rochester, NY a special collection of materials housed in the LeRoy V. Good Library.

Center for Holocaust, Genocide & Peace Studies (CHGPS) University of Nevada, Reno

North Carolina:
Eastern North Carolina Holocaust Project at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, is an educational and research resource for the people of eastern North Carolina. By helping preserve the memory of the 6,000,000 Jews and 5,000,000, Slavs, Gypsies, Gays, and others murdered by Nazi Germany between 1939-45, the project seeks to help prevent future genocides from occurring.

Holocaust Awareness Museum Gratz College, Philadelphia, PA

Holocaust and Genocide Education Center (est. 1978) West Chester University, West Chester

Philadelphia Center on the Holocaust, Genocide and Human Rights, ( Marion, PA)

Advocacy Organizations

Global Organizations, Coalitions, Federations and Networks:

AMCHA National Israeli Center for Psychosocial Support of Survivors of the Holocaust and the Second Generation

Association of Hidden Children of Holocaust in Poland, Est. 1991

ccjo.renécassin  is an organization of Jewish people committed to the promotion of the human rights of all people, building on the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, one of whose authors was the first president of the Consultative Council of Jewish Organizations (CCJO, René Cassin.

The Appeal of Conscience Foundation (est. 1965) is an interfaith coalition of business and religious leaders promoting religious freedom, human rights, peace, tolerance and ethnic conflict resolution throughout the world. Founder and President Rabbi Arthur Schneier (b. 1930) is a Holocaust survivor, Rabbi Schneier who survived the Nazi occupation of Budapest before ariving iin the United States in 1947. In the November 1992 "Berne Declaration: Appeal for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina" Rabbi Schneier and others asserted that "a crime committed in the name of religion is the greatest crime against religion."

Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation, Inc. (est. 1976, Brookline, MA, USA) "By studying the historical development of the Holocaust and other examples of collective violence, students make the essential connection between history and the moral choices they confront in their own lives." )

International Network of Holocaust and Genocide Survivors and Their Friends (Established in November 2001 in Kigali, Rwanda at the International conference of genocide survivors - An international conference of genocide and holocaust survivors organized with the theme "Rebuilding the lives of Genocide survivors"

Memory to Action Project (Santa Barbara, CA). Est. in 1997 as the Holocaust Home Commemoration Project, Inc., now working "towards a future free of genocide."

Holocaust/Genocide Project (HGP) of the International Education and Resource Network (IEARN)

Web Genocide Documentation Centre Home Page (Resources on Genocide, War Crimes and Mass Killing by Dr. Stuart Stein of the University of the West of England)

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